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UNIVERSITY/ 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

UBRAR1E5 




MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT 
ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1: 

THE ROLE OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES 
AIND THE ENVIRONMENT 

Judith Alleyne Peters 

A THESIS 



Historic Preservation 

Presented to the Faculties of the University of Pennsylvania in 
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of 

MASTER OF SCffiNCE 

2002 



FrankG^Matero 

Associate Professor of Architecture 





Resyier 

John A. Fidler 

Head of Building Conservation 

& Research 

English Heritage 




. Chair 
Franklj-^atero 
Associate Professor of Architecture 



f\t^t Aers//v)A / oS I a^^<3 / P Mg^ 



UNIVERSlPi' 

OF 

PENNSYLVANIA 

LIBRARIES 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

When one decides to "retire early" at age fifty from a lucrative business career to 
seriously pursue a career in the preservation of significant cultural resources, it can 
only be done successfiilly with considerable support from family, friends and mentors. 
I have been exceedingly fortunate to have a family that encourages the constant 
acquisition of knowledge of the material and cultural world. My father. Dr. Timothy 
Peters, and my mother. Dr. Janice Peters, have taught me that there are friends, 
opportunities and interesting, challenging projects to be found in every part of life, and 
in every part of the globe. It is boring and unfijlfilling to walk only on the 
conventional paths. 

When I decided to enter a graduate program in conservation at the University of 
Pennsylvania, I never realized how totally involved I would become. I wish to 
acknowledge my brother, sister and friends that have helped me maintain my life and 
responsibilities in Princeton, NJ, while I worked and studied long hours in Philadelphia. 
My brother has been particularly helpfiil wdth all physical phases of this research, such as 
helping me carry and cut heavy bricks and samples of stucco. 

This research has been a joy and I have purposefiilly pushed into areas not absolutely 
required for the main theme, so that I could acquire hands-on experience with many 
sample handling, characterization and analytical techniques. I would like to express 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

my gratitude to Lindsay Hannah and Dorothy Krotzer for their on-site help in 
gathering the numerous samples, and for their insight into deterioration at the site as 
they work on the Save America 's Treasures project to stabilize and restore tombs. I 
found the classes and labs taught by Frank Matero and Elena Charola particularly 
helpful in this research, and also wish to thank Rynta Fourie for her time and advice on 
microscopy. Jim Ferris, Bill Romonow and Andrew McGhie at the Laboratory for 
Research on Structural Matter were wonderfully giving of their time and expertise in 
SEM, XRD and TGA. 

Lastly, I wish to acknowledge and express my gratitude to Frank Matero. When I first 
posed the idea of coming back to school and entering a new field, he enthusiastically 
endorsed the plan. Since I entered the program, he has offered me numerous projects 
to expand my knowledge and experience base. I have particularly enjoyed working on 
the New Orleans St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 project and look forward to expanding my 
involvement in a continuing role next year. 



Introduction 4 Hi 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS " 

FIGURES vii 

TABLES x« 

LO INTRODUCTION 1 

2.0 ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 - HISTORICAL CONTEXT 5 

2.1 New Orleans - A City Develops in Spite of the River 5 

2.2 St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 - Development and Change 8 

2.3 Tomb Types and Traditional Construction 11 

2.4 The Evolution of Restoration Practices 19 

3.0 TOMB DECAY MECHANISMS 26 

3.1 Development of Hypotheses 26 

3.2 Tomb Construction - Form and Function 27 

3.3 Construction Materials 32 

3.3.1 The Integrated Assembly System 32 

3.3.2 Brick 33 

3.3.3 Mortar, Stucco, Plaster and Render 39 

3.3.4 Surface Finish 48 

3.3.5 Additional Components 50 

3.4 Environmental Conditions 51 

3.4.1 The Environment of New Orleans and the Cemetery Site 51 

3.4.2 Biological and Vegetative Growth 54 

3.4.3 Other Environmental Issues 56 

3.5 Moisture Driven Decay Mechanisms 59 

3.5.1 Porosity and Moisture Movement 60 

3.5.2 The Evaporative Drying Process 66 

3.5.3 Chemical Actions 70 

3.5.4 Physical Movement 72 

4.0 CURRENT CONDITIONS 75 

4.1 Analysis of Current Condition Survey Data 75 

4.2 Field Survey Observations 76 

5.0 MATERIAL ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION 91 

5.1 Sampling Strategies 93 

5.1.1 Brick 94 

5.1.2 Stucco/ Surface Finish Assembly 95 

5.1.3 Mortar 96 



5.2 Laboratory Analysis ^^ 

5.2.1 Visual Inspection and Physical Characterization 96 

5.2.2 Moisture Absorption by Total Immersion 101 

5.2.3 Additional Tests on Intact Bricks 108 

5.2.4 Development of Test Plan for Further Analysis 1 10 

5.2.5 Water Vapor Transmission HI 

5.2.6 Capillary Absorption 119 

5.2.7 Drying Curves and Drying Rates 123 

5.2.8 Acid Soluble Analysis & Gravimetric Analysis 127 

5.2.9 Calcimetry 138 

5.2.10 Presence of Salts 139 

5.2.11 Optical Microscopy 142 

5.2.12 Polarized Light Microscopy 146 

5.2.13 Advanced Instrumental Analysis 151 

5.2.14 Scanning Electron Microscopy, EDS 151 

5.2.15 X-Ray Diffraction Analysis 159 

5.2.16 Thermal Gravimetry, Differential Thermal Analysis 165 

5.2.17 Laboratory Analysis - Observations and Conclusions 171 

6.0 TOMB DECAY MODELS & SCENARIOS 174 

6.1 Tomb Decay Mechanisms Confirmed 174 

6.1.1 Brick 176 

6.1.2 Mortar 177 

6.1.3 Stucco 179 

6.2 Tomb Combinations Dlustrated 182 

6.3 Tomb Decay Scenarios 188 

6.3.1 The Well-Maintained Tomb 190 

6.3.2 Neglected Surface Finishes 192 

6.3.3 Deferred Repairs 194 

6.3.4 The Unwelcome "Garden" 196 

6.3.5 Incompatible Surface Finishes 198 

6.3.6 Incompatible Patches & Repairs 200 

6.3.7 The Cement Straight- Jacket 202 

7.0 RECOMMENDATIONS 204 

7.1 Recommendations for Further Research 204 

7.2 Recommendations for Aboveground Cemetery Guidelines 207 

8.0 CONCLUSIONS 208 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 210 

New Orleans History and Cemeteries 210 

Technical Bibliography 214 

APPENDICES 227 

Appendix A - GISMaps of Conditions 228 

Appendix B - Sampling Record 236 

Appendix C - Experimental Data 267 

Appendix D - Summary Results 293 

INDEX 303 



FIGURES 



CHAPTER 2 

2. 1 Map of the Louisiana Coast, 1719-20, M, de Serigny, 

The Historic New Orleans Collection, 22.1 6 

2.2 Norman's Plan of New Orleans Environs, 1845, 

Special Collections, Tulane University 7 

2.3 Closure tablet. Tomb #251, First visible date of 1826 10 

2.4 Aboveground tombs 11 

2.5 Early step tombs 13 

2.6 Sketches of aboveground tombs by Benjamin Latrobe, from 

The Journals of Benjamin Henry Latrobe 1 799-1820 14 

2.7 St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 in 1834, Watercolor sketch by John H.B. Latrobe... 16 

2.8 Perpetual Care tomb being rebuiU 22 

2.9 Marble tablet repaired with an incompatible epoxy adhesive 23 

2.10 Bergamini Tomb #12, one of the pilot restoration tombs 25 

CHAPTERS 

3.1 Cause-and-effect diagram for tomb decay 26 

3.2 Vauh configurations for aboveground tombs 29 

3.3 Brickwork showing evidence that tomb was added onto at some time 30 

3.4 Muhiple layers of surface finish. 12.5 x magnification 30 

3.5 Multiple layers of stucco. 12.5 x magnification 30 

3.6 Flooding between the tombs 51 

3.7 St. Louis Cemetery No. 1, March 2001 58 

3.8 Sources of moisture 59 

3.9 Attraction of water molecules to hydrophilic porous materials 61 

3.10 4 levels of wetting for hydrophilic porous materials 64 

3.11 Capillary Absorption Curve for 548-01 Brick with Stucco 65 

3.12 4 levels of drying for hydrophilic porous materials 67 

3.13 Drying rate curve shows critical moisture content point 68 

3.14 The salt decay mechanism 70 

3.15 Brick fractured by cement stucco 71 

CHAPTER 4 

4.1 Stucco condition mapping through GIS 75 

4.2 Adhesion mechanisms include both physical and chemical forces 77 

4.3 Example of cracked and peeling modem finish 78 



4.4 Delamination and deformation of stucco 80 

4.5 Telescoping brick wall 82 

4.6 Open mortar joints and evidence of wetness 82 

4.7 Tomb #518 Sodiedad Cervantes de B.M., cement cracking 82 

4.8 Comparison of damage results. Telescoping vs. structural cracking 83 

4.9 Salt induced map cracking on cement layer 84 

4.10 Stucco applied over flush mortar joint vs. recessed "key." 85 

4.11 Cornice failure 86 

4.12 Failed flat roof on platform tomb 87 

4.13 Tomb #14, Cracking at stucco to metal interface 88 

4.14 Tomb #351, "Before." 90 

4.15 Tomb #351, "After." 90 

CHAPTERS 

5.1 Testing and analysis plan 92 

5.2 Hand made brick evidenced by mold "lip"marks 99 

5.3 Strike marks on a hand made brick 99 

5.4 Sample brick marked for cutting 99 

5.5 River and Lake brick distinguished by color and impurities 100 

5.6 Samples of stucco during total immersion test 101 

5.7 Total saturation point average, minimum and maximum by group 103 

5.8 Average open porosity percent by group 103 

5.9 Average initial slope of absorption by group 104 

5.10 Comparison of the Ms.^t for mortar and stucco of the same tomb 106 

5.11 Total immersion test on brick 107 

5.12 Capillary rise test on full brick 109 

5.13 Thickness to WVT correlation 112 

5.14 Stucco sample preparation for WVT test 113 

5.15 Brick cubes for WVT test 115 

5.16 Daily weight loss% readings, brick 116 

5.17 Water vapor transmission resuhs for stucco samples 1 17 

5.18 Water vapor transmission resuhs for brick samples 119 

5.19 Stucco discs racked in water for capillary absorption test 121 

5.20 Sample from Tomb #275 showing saUs formed on cement stucco 121 

5.21 Capillary absorption curves 122 

5.22 Drying rate curves identifies the critical moisture content point 125 

5.23 Drying rate curve for a combination sample, 600-02 Tan-Gray 125 

5.24 Weight % averages for fine, coarse and acid soluble fractions 130 

5.25 Sample 09-03 mortar. Sieve fraction 1-3. Magnified 5x 131 

5.26 Sample 45-03 mortar, Sieve fraction 1-3. Magnified 5x 131 

5.27 Mortar type differences - Gravimetric analysis results 131 



5.28 Aggregate analysis, % retained, stucco groups and mortar 132 

5.29 Aggregate analysis, % passing, stucco groups and mortar 133 

5.30 Testing for salt presence with MerckQuant® indicator strips 141 

5.31 Tan stucco layer on Tomb #09. 1 2. 5x magnification 144 

5.32 Gray stucco layer on Tomb #09. 12. 5x magnification 144 

5.33 Tomb #09 mortar at 12. 5x magnification. Brick particles evident 145 

5.34 Tomb #09 mortar at 12. 5x magnification. Shell fragment evident 145 

5.35 Tomb #600, damage material detected at Tan-Gray stucco interface. 25x. . 145 

5.36 Tomb #89, 150-300|jm aggregate, plain polarized light, 25x magnification 148 

5.37 Tomb #89, 1 50-300|im aggregate, cross polarized light, 25x magnification 148 

5.38 Sample block of stucco fi^om Tomb#09 showing tomb components 149 

5.39 Thin section Tomb #09, Tan layer, plain polarized. 12.x magnification 150 

5 .40 Thin section Tomb #09, Tan layer, cross polarized. 12.x magnification 150 

5.41 Thin section Tomb #09, Gray layer, plain polarized. 12.x magnification 150 

5.42 Thin section Tomb #09, Gray layer, cross polarized. 12.x magnification 150 

5.43 Stucco samples prepared for SEM testing 153 

5.44 Tomb #600, Tan layer. SEM at 250x magnification 154 

5.45 Tomb #600, Gray layer. SEM at 250x magnification 155 

5.46 Tomb #600, Gray layer. SEMat250x. Acicular crystals in open pore 156 

5.47 Tomb #600, Gray layer. SEMatlOOOx. Acicular crystals 156 

5.48 Tomb #200, Dark Tan -Gray interface. SEM at lOOx magnification 157 

5.49 Tomb #200, Dark Tan -Gray interface. SEM at 250x, Calcite 158 

5.50 Tomb#200, Dark Tan -Gray interface. SEM at lOOOx, Calcite 158 

5.51 Sample preparation for XRD 161 

5.52 XRD sample scans of Tomb #09 Tan and Gray and 1200 White 162 

5.53 TGA-DTA scan for lime putty control sample 167 

5.54 TGA-DTA scan for Riverton hydrated hydraulic lime control 168 

5.55 TGA-DTA scan for Tomb #09-Tan 169 

5.56 TGA-DTA scan for Tomb #600-Gray 170 

5.57 TGA-DTA scan for Tomb #600-Gray 171 

CHAPTER 6 

6.1 Tomb #135 174 

6.2 Tomb #1200 174 

6.3 Tomb #09, platform tomb, first data- 1822, current conditions 183 

6.4 Tomb #09, stucco layers 183 

6.5 Simple composite system, one stucco layer. Tomb #09 data 184 

6.6 Complex composite system, multiple stucco layers. Tomb #09 data 1 84 

6.7 Structural crack in Tomb #09 due to cement stucco layer 185 

6.8 Back of Tomb #600 covered in cement stucco 186 

6.9 Complex composite system, multiple stucco layers. Tomb #600 data 1 86 



6.10 Tomb #558 with incompatible patching 187 

6. 1 1 Decay mechanism at the edge of an incompatible patch 188 

6.12 Tomb #230, Well-maintained example 190 

6.13 Scenario: The well-maintained tomb 191 

6.14 Neglected surface finishes 192 

6.15 Scenario: Neglected surface finishes 193 

6.16 Tomb #39, example of deferred repairs 194 

6.17 Scenario: Deferred repairs I95 

6.18 Bio-film and moss progressed to vegetation 196 

6.19 Stucco breached and mortar replaced by moss 196 

6.20 Scenario: The unwelcome garden I97 

6.21 Thick layers of peeling modem surface finish 198 

6.22 Scenario: Incompatible surface finishes I99 

6.23 Cement patch pushed off of original stucco 200 

6.24 Scenario: Incompatible patches and repairs 201 

6.25 The sides of a cement encased tomb breaking up 202 

6.26 Cracked cement casing on oldest section of wall vaults 202 

6.27 Scenario: The cement straight-jacket 203 



All photographs and sketches by Judy Peters (2001-2002) unless otherwise noted 



TABLES 

1. J.D. Connolly's List of Deterioration Mechanisms Caused by Inadequate 

Moisture Control 60 

2. Water Vapor Transmission Results for Specific Stucco Samples 118 

Tested With and Without Surface Finish 

3. Summary Results from Capillary Absorption Test 123 

Samples: Stucco without Surface Finish and Bare Brick 

4. Summary Results of Drying Rate Test 126 

Samples: Stucco without Surface Finish and Bare Brick 

5. Gravimetric Analysis - Weight % Results 137 

Samples: 30 Stucco (all groups), 20 Mortar 

6. Qualitative Analysis for Presence of Soluble Salt 142 

7. XRD Resuhs of Stucco Samples 163 

8. Summary Data - Sample Categories Response to Moisture 175 

9. Total Immersion Tests on Stucco 268 

10. Total Immersion Tests on Mortar 272 

11. Total Immersion Tests on Brick 273 

12. Final Testing Plan 274 

13. Stucco Water Vapor Transmission Test Data 275 

14. Brick Water Vapor Transmission Test Data 276 

15. Stucco Gravimetric Analysis 279 

16. Mortar Gravimetric Analysis 280 

17. Stucco Capillary Absorption Example Data 281 

18. Brick Capillary Absorption Example Data 282 

19. Stucco Drying Curve and Drying Rate Example Data 283 

20. Brick Drying Curve and Drying Rate Example Data 284 

21. Summary: Moisture Response Data for All Groups 294 

X 



22. Tomb Combinations - All Key Data 295 

23. Summary Data for All Stucco Discs 298 

24. Summary Data for All Brick Cubes 301 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1: 

THE ROLE OF MATEIUAL PROPERTIES 

AND THE ENVIRONMENT 

1.0 INTRODUCTION 

Since 2000, the University of Pennsylvania, through the Graduate School of Fine Arts 
Departments of Historic Preservation and Landscape Architecture, has been developing 
conservation guidelines and a management plan for St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 in New 
Orleans, Louisiana. In March, 2001, a comprehensive site survey ((hereafter called 
Survey) of the landscape features and individual tombs was completed. This thesis 
combined the total site Survey information on tomb conditions with a literature review 
of decay mechanisms and environmental impacts and a laboratory material 
characterization of brick, stucco and mortar from specific tombs. Utilizing this 
information, deterioration scenarios were developed to explain curtent conditions. The 
sketches of these scenarios should be usefiil in educational materials and guidelines for 
conservation of aboveground cemeteries. 

Owned and managed by the Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans, St. Louis Cemetery 
No. 1, buih in 1789, is the oldest surviving urban cemetery in New Orleans, Louisiana, 
and is of national, as well as local, significance. Among the many reasons for its 
importance are the cemetery's unique and early design, its reflection of New Orleans 

I Introduction 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

social diversity, and the high quality and integrity of its architecture. It is one of only a 
few cemeteries on the National Register, and has also been identified as one of the 
country's Save America 's Treasures sites. 

The cemetery contains approximately 700 tombs and tomb ruins in small urban-like 
precincts. The tombs are owned by individuals, families and societies and most are 
aboveground and designed for multiple burials. Although there are a variety of tomb 
types and styles, a majority of the inventory consists of primary structures of soft, 
handmade, local "river" or "lake" brick and high lime content mortar, covered with 
high lime, hydraulic lime or natural cement content stucco. Until the mid-nineteenth 
century, the cemetery continued to develop. Tombs were added, smaller tombs were 
expanded with new additions, and most structures were kept in good repair. The yearly 
tradition of visitations and festivities on All Saints' Day provided an additional social 
reminder for family members to maintain the tombs. During this time, it is believed 
that the outer stucco covering on the tombs was kept intact and whitewashed, thus 
providing protection for the soft brick structure beneath. 

By the late nineteenth century, St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 was showing advanced signs 
of decay and neglect, as many families had begun interring deceased members in newer 
cemeteries, and many of the older families had died out or left New Orleans. Periodic 
maintenance campaigns were spurred by concerned preservation groups or by the 

2 Introduction 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

Archdiocese. From field observations, it appears that the repair/restoration campaigns 
that occurred in the early to mid twentieth century involved liberal applications of high 
cement content stucco over the historic materials. Evidence also exists that many of 
the tombs were coated in modem finishes. These repairs have not held up well, and during 
the last decades of the twentieth century, restorations have begun to move in a disturbing 
direction. Many of the tombs placed in the "Perpetual Care" program, by families 
uninterested in or unable to provide long-term maintenance, have been fiilly or partially 
dismantled, the historic fabric discarded, and the structure rebuilt in reinforced concrete. 

In this research. Survey condition data of the total site were analyzed and used to 
identify candidates for further material analysis. Geographical Information System 
(GIS) software was used to map conditions on both a site-wide and tomb specific level 
to study trends and patterns. A large sample set of individual materials and tomb 
systems was visually classified and generally evaluated for moisture absorption by total 
immersion. A selected subset of material samples and total systems was then tested 
further for moisture response by capillary absorption, drying rates, percent porosity, 
moisture vapor transmission, sah presence and composition. Normal and polarized 
light microscopy was used to analyze micro-structure, aggregate sorting, and 
composition. Specific stucco binder components were analyzed with Scanning 
Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermal Gravimetric 
Analysis (TGA). 

3 Introduction 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

A review of the available literature on material properties and decay processes, as well 
as testing methodology, was instructive in the adaptation of test methods to 
characterize such a large base of samples. The objectives in this research focused on 
property averages and comparisons to determine overall patterns of performance 
characteristics and decay mechanisms. The conclusions drawn and the illustrations of 
the decay processes provide guidance for basic conservation recommendations for tombs 
in St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 . For individual restoration projects, fiirther archival research 
and material analysis specific to each tomb, with an analysis of the specific issues of that 
tomb, would be advisable. 

This characterization of tombs and analysis of building materials has confirmed the 
hypothesis that incompatibilities in building materials lead to certain moisture driven 
decay patterns. When subjected to the high heat and humidity of New Orleans, the 
differing hygroscopic properties of the materials in the system have exacerbated and 
accelerated decay mechanisms, resulting in gross cracking and delamination, with 
resuhant stucco, mortar and brick loss. Without the periodic maintenance routines that 
were in place historically, these deterioration results grew into major structural failures. 
The overall condition of the site today is primarily the result of years of neglect and 
deferred maintenance and many of the repairs that were made have tended to exacerbate 
masonry deterioration caused by the differing properties of the original and repair materials. 

4 Introduction 



2.0 ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 - HISTORICAL CONTEXT 

2.1 New Orleans - A City Develops in Spite of the River 

By the mid-seventeenth century, the French had estabHshed themselves in North 
America by claiming and settUng around the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes, 
in the region now known as Quebec. They recognized the strategic importance that 
control of the waterways provided and sought to secure the mouth of the great 
Mississippi River. On April 9, 1682, the land now known as Louisiana was claimed 
for France by Robert Cavalier de La Salle and was named Louisiane, for Louis XIV. 
By 1 700, there were French soldiers in the region to protect the area from 
encroachment by the Spanish, who already had colonies in Florida and had laid claim 
to the gulf coast of the North American continent. In 1717, John Law, a Scot, was 
given the exclusive charter to sell real estate and develop Louisiana for the French. 
Settlers from France and Germany were lured to New Orleans expecting financial 
opportunities and a heahhy climate. Instead, most found an early demise in the 
mosquito and snake infested bayous. 

Most historical commentators remarked on the poor, yet perfect location of the city 
founded in 1718 as New Orleans by Jean Baptiste Lemoyne de Bienville, the then 
Governor-General of Louisiana. Its history and development have been inextricably 

5 Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

linked to the Mississippi River, with its large delta of below sea level swamp and 
marshland. The city is sited on a great bend in the Mississippi River bounded to the 
north, west and south by the river and the east by a large lake. Lake Pontchartrain. It 
lies near the mouth of the river, and near enough to bayous that could be navigated, so 
that a sheltered, deep-water port could be established.' The strip of land almost a mile 
wide along the river's bend was the best and closest area that Bienville encountered 
while exploring northward from the mouth of the river It was on relatively high ground 
and was considered large enough for a development. Economically and geographically, 
this original crescent of land was the perfect site for shipping and control of the 
waterways, and the best of many bad sites for building a new city. In spite of the lack of 
local building stone and other resources, and the almost yearly yellow fever epidemics 
and other plagues, "New Orleans grew rapidly and before the Civil War, was the 

^ wealthiest and third 

largest city in the United 
States."^ 



Fig. 2.1 

Map of the 

Louisiana Coast, 

1719-20, 

hyM. de Serignv. 

THNOC22.1 




' Donnald McNabb and Lee Madere, A History of New Orleans (New Orleans: Lee Madere. 1997). 3. 
* Steia Joseph A. "New Orleans," Pencil Points v. 19 (1938 April): 197. 



Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 



wamMMStB rxjkx 




fUfr^h. C**^A 0(V/^ J, .r^-mftV •*<«.•- *»A«vT-X-tt«yi- /U I/A»ni7 \'^ Ori^m ,i /SIS. J^^^thr ,i^ 



Fig. 2.2 Norman 's Plan of New Orleans Environs, 1845. 
Special Collections, Tulane Univeristy. 

The history of New Orleans under the French, the Spanish, the French again, and 
finally, as part of the Louisiana Purchase, becoming a part of the United States of 
America, is rich and fascinating, and far beyond the scope of this thesis.^ The 
environment and the city's constant battle with water, the mix of French, Spanish and 
American cultures, the Creole society, the large influxes of immigrants, the almost 
yearly yellow fever or plague epidemics, the city's pattern of growth, the unique 
development of laws, and, of course the architecture, have all impacted the 



' The New Orleans History section of the Bibliography contains manv excellent sources for the stud}' of 
the history and architecture of New Orleans and the aboveground cemeteries. 



Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



development of the cemeteries. New Orieans history, geography and culture have also 
influenced building materials of choice and attitudes towards cemetery maintenance 
and preservation, and will be important elements to understand in the development of 
plans to arrest the current levels of decay and initiate long-term plans for maintenance 
and protection of this important cultural landscape. 

2.2 St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 - Development and Change 

For the early years of settlement, it has been assumed by many authors that burials 
occurred in the high ground of the riverbank, although this fact has never been verified 
archaeologically or through archival records. During high rainy seasons, this land 
flooded and remains would have been disturbed. In a 1721 plan for the city, Royal 
Military Engineer Adrian DePauger included an area for a cemetery outside of the city 
limits, where St. Peter Street is today. This low, swampy site was surrounded by 
ditches in an attempt to drain excess water, and burials were made below ground. 
Prominent citizens were not buried in the watery graves in St. Peter Cemetery, as they 
could command space within the parish church of St. Louis, as was the custom in 
Europe. The burial space in the Church quickly neared its maximum capacity, and in 



Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

1784, the Spanish Cabildo, fearing disease from over burial, prohibited interment in the 
church of all but the most distinguished inhabitants of the colony."* 

In 1788, New Orleans lost many citizens to an epidemic and a great fire. The St. Peter 
Cemetery was over-filled and there was a growing belief that interring the dead among 
the living contributed to outbreaks of disease. The Cabildo ordered a new cemetery to 
be established outside the city limits. St. Louis Cemetery, now called St. Louis 
Cemetery No. 1, was established to the north of the city, outside the ramparts in the 
area now bound by Basin, Conti, Treme and St. Louis streets. The 300 foot square 
space was considered temporary until oflficially approved on August 14, 1789, when a 
royal decree was issued in which "His Majesty was pleased to approve the construction 
of the new cemetery."^ 

After disastrous fires in both 1788 and 1794, the Spanish Cabildo passed building laws 
that forbade the construction of wooden buildings within the center of the city, 
"requiring walls to be of brick or of brick between posts protected by at least an inch of 
cement plaster."^ New Orleans became a city of brick buildings and these building 
practices also became the norm for tomb and cemetery wall construction. "After 1 803 
the rapid increase in population, together with the inroads made by yellow fever and 



^ Mary Louise Christovich. ed.. New Orleans Architecture, Vol. Ill The Cemeteries (Gretna: Pelican 
Publishing. 1974). 4. 
^ Records and Deliberations of the Cabildo. Oct. 17 1788. t>pescript WPA. 1936. 
* Samuel Wilson, Jr., "The Architecture of New Orleans." .^Z-l Journal (August 1959): 32-35. 

9 Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

cholera, created a real municipal problem. . . Rigid regulations regarding methods of 
burial were issued. Interment in the ground was forbidden, and brick tombs were 
required in all cemeteries which were enclosed within high brick walls."^ It was at this 
time that burials within the church were also abolished.^ 

Although interments continued at St. Peter Cemetery until it was closed in 1800, St. 
Louis Cemetery No. 1 was the primary location for all burials in the city until the 
consecration of St. Louis Cemetery No. 2 in 1823.^ The growth of the city and the 
high death toll from yellow fever made more burial space necessary. There are still 
many tombs in St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 that have dates after 1823, such as the one seen 
in Figure 2.3, as family plots were built, added onto or tombs rebuilt throughout the 
nineteenth century. New building activity slowed dramatically by the late nineteenth 
century, as there were a number of more fashionable cemeteries throughout the city, 
and many of the tombs at St. Louis 
Cemetery No. 1 fell into ruin. 



Fig. 2.3 

Closure Tablet 

Tomb #251, 

r' visible date 

is 1826. 





Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration for the City of New Orleans, New 
Orleans City Guide (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1938). 186. 
* Records and Deliberations of the Cabildo. December 28. 1803. typescript WPA. 1936. 
' Christovich. 6. 



JO 



Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



2.3 Tomb Types and Traditional Construction 



St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 is described as an aboveground cemetery, although there 

exist below ground burials there, as there 

were at St. Peter Cemetery. According to 

Louisiana historian Eric J. Brock, 

the tradition of above ground 
interments is more cultural than 
practical (though certainly the 
practicality of the method in New 
Orleans' particular environment 
played a role in its adoption.) 
Above ground interment is 
common throughout the Latin 
world and, indeed, is more the rule 
there than the exception.**' 

Fig. 2.4 Aboveground tombs. 




Sharyn Thomson described low individual tombs of brick, common in late eighteenth, early 
nineteenth century cemeteries throughout the coastal American south and the West Indies, 
that appear similar to the low step and platform tombs at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 ." 

By studying archival records with recent survey resuhs and data on the first evident 
interment date, one can see a progression in the construction of tomb types and in their 



"^ Eric J. Brock, Images of America: New Orleans Cemeteries (Charleston: Arcadia Press, 1999), 7. 
' ' Sharyn Thompson, "These Works of Mortuary Art: The Aboveground Tombs of St. Michael 
Cemetery, Pensacola, Florida." Southern Quarterly 31 (2) (Winter 1993): 50-73. 



11 



Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 



later renovations and additions. The March, 2001, Survey of St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 

by The University of Pennsylvania, Graduate School of Fine Arts Collaborative Studio, 

identified the major tomb types. '^ 

Wall Vault: Multiple tiers of individual burial vaults, usually of brick vault 
construction, arranged to form an isolated block, usually serving as a 
perimeter enclosure wall. 

Pediment Tomb: A multiple vault tomb with a height greater than either its 
width or length and surmounted by a pediment, (Pediment: the flat, 
triangular or curved gable end of the roof surmounting the end walls.) 
These are usually family tombs. 

Simple Tomb: This tomb type has multiple variations that will be referred 
to as the sub-types. A simple tomb is a small mortuary structure, that 
contains one or more burial vaults within solid walls and whose length is ^eater 
than its width or height. There are several classifications of simple tombs: 

• Platform tomb: A simple tomb whose base is solid or open on piers 
or columns. 

• Parapet tomb: A simple tomb possessing a raised fi-ont creating a 
parapet (a low wall surmounting the structure's exterior walls or at a 
roofs perimeter), with or without embellishment. 

• Sarcophagus tomb: A simple tomb resembling a sarcophagus, 
typically with canted sides and usually on a raised base. 

• Step tomb: A simple tomb possessing a stepped or corbelled top. 

When New Yorker John Pintard visited the cemetery in 1801, he described a landscape 
very different from the image of St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 today. The graves were not 
marked and the tall pediment aboveground tombs common today were not remarked as 



- The Collaborauve Studio was developed in 2000 in conjunction with Save our Cemeteries Inc and 
the Roman Catholic Church of the Archdiocese of New Orleans by the University of Pennsylvania's 
Graduate School of Fine Arts Departments of Historic Preservation and Landscape Architecture with 
Tulane University's School of Architecture/Preservation Studies. Funding was made available by the 
Louisiana Division of Historic Preservatioa Office of Cultural Development and Tourism. They also 
pro\ided further funding Phase 2 archival research, map and database w ork. and for the development of 
Preservation Guidelines. 



12 Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 



dominant. There still remain several good examples in St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 of the 

low step tombs that Pintard described, such as the two seen in Figure 2.5. He commented: 

Over some few, brick arches were turned. At the head of every grave 
was planted an Iron or wooden cross some of the Iron ones were 
indented with the names of the lifeless tenants below. '^ 




Cemeteries have developed around 
two models. The rural cemetery, or 
Elysian Field, is viewed as a garden of 
graves. In fact, one definition of 
"cemetery" is "place of sleep." The 
Necropolis, or city of the dead model 
Fig. 2.5. Early Step Tombs. as that found at St. Louis Cemetery 

No. 1, is predominantly architectural. This is not the model most Americans found 
familiar or comfortable. As Senator Hoar expressed when first viewing the heavy 
monuments Benjamin Latrobe designed for the Congressional Cemetery, "the thought 
of being buried beneath one . . . added new terror to death.""* 



Most of the travel journals that reference New Orleans were written by visitors fi-om 
the Northeast, where church graveyards were the norm and where the rural cemeteries first 



David Lee Sterling. "New Orleans. 1801: An Account bv John Pintard." Louisiana Historical 
Quarterly Vol 34 no 3 (July 1951): 230. John Pintard wrote a series of articles published in the Dailv 
Advertiser from April 15 to May 22. 1802. while an editor of that paper in New York City The original 
manuscript is held by the New York Historical Society. 

Edward F. Bergman. HoodlaMn Remembers: Cemetery of. American Historv (Utica NY- North 
Country Books. 1988). 2 



13 



Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

developed in the 1830s. They were most comfortable with the rural cemetery, or Elysian 
Field model, a garden of monuments. When confronted with the Necropolis, or city of the 
dead model, they commented with fascination, puzzlement and sometime, revulsion. 



In 1818, Benjamin Latrobe described a cemetery that contained stucco covered brick 

platform, and possibly pediment tombs, as well as wall vaults. He sketched 4 platform 

tombs in his journal, and a wall vault in two sections, one with 7 bays and one with 9 bays, 

each 3 tiers high. 

The Catholic tombs are of a very different Character from those of our 
Eastern and Northern cities. They are of bricks, much larger than 
necessary to enclose a single coffin, and plaistered [sic] over, so as to 
have a very solid and permanent appearance. They are of these and 

many other Shapes of similar 
character covering each an 
area of 7 or 8 feet long and 4 
or 5 feet wide, and being from 
5 to 7 feet high. '^ 

In one comer of the Catholic 
burying grounds are two sets 
of Catacombs of three stories 
each . . . Many of the Catacombs 
were occupied, but not in 
regular succession and the 
mouths of some were filled with 
Marble Slabs having 
inscriptions. But more were 




Fig. 2. 6 Benjamin Latrobe 's sketches of the 
aboveground platform tombs. He also made 2 
sketches of the wall vaults. From the Benjamin 
Latrobe Journals. 



Benjamin Latrobe, March 8* 1819. This quote can be found in publications of the Latrobe's 
Journals. From Samuel Wilson, Jr. ed.. Impressions Respecting New Orleans by Benjamin Henry 
Bonex'al Latrobe: Diary & Sketches 1818-1820. (New York: Columbia Universit>- Press, 1951), 82;and 
Edward C. Carter IL John C. Van Home, and Lee W. FormwalL eds. Samuel Wilson, Jr. Consulting Ed. 
The Journals of Benjamin Henry Latrobe 1 799-1820 From Philadelphia to New Orleans. (New Haven: 
Yale University Press for The Maryland Historical Society, 1980), 241. 



14 



Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 

bricked up and plaistered [sic] without any indication of the person's name 
who occupied it/^ 

Timothy Flint, a protestant missionary from New England, spent 10 years traveling 

throughout the Mississippi valley. He was conflicted concerning his assessment of the 

"morals" of the people of New Orleans, as he found so many contrasting practices of 

what he felt was good and evil, but found the cemetery impressive. In 1822 he wrote: 

The old Catholic cemetery is completely covered either with graves or 
monuments. The monuments are uniformly either of white marble, or 
plaister, or painted white, and by the brilliant moonlight evenings of this 
mild climate, this city of the dead, or as the more appropriate phrase of 
the Jews is, of the living, makes an impressive appearance.'^ 

Benjamin Latrobe's youngest son, John H. B. Latrobe painted a more colorful view 

that gives us the first clear image of St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 in 1834. The pyramidal 

Vamey tomb is prominent, and there are step and platform tombs illustrated in earth 

colored stuccos. Multiple burial tombs, open space, wall vauUs, and ships in the canal 

beyond are documented: 

We went to the Catholic burying ground. The tombs here are peculiar 
to the place. No grave could be dug of the usual depth without coming 
to water, and to obviate this difficulty in the sepulcher of the dead, the 
coffin is laid upon the surface of the ground, and a strong structure of 
brick buih around it. This is then plastered and whitewashed.'^ 



'* Ibid, Wilson, 83. Carter. 242. 

' Timothy Flint, Recollections of the last ten years, passed in occasional residences and joumeyings 
in the vallev of the Mississippi. (1826 reprint. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp.. 1968). 225. 

18 

Samuel Wilson, Jr. and Leonard V. Huber, The St. Louis Cemeteries of New Orleans (New Orleans: 
St. Louis Cathedral, 1963). 5. quoted from John E. Semmes. John H. B. Latrobe and His Times - 1803- 
1891 (Baltimore. 1917). 

15 Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Fig. 2. 7 St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 in 1834, Watercolor sketch by John H.B. Latrobe. 
Image reproduced from cover art on The St. Louis Cemeteries of New Orleans, October, 
1998, published by St Louis Cathedral. The original artM'ork was owned Mrs. Ferdinand 
Claiborne Latrobe, II, of Baltimore. 

Cyril Thornton, writing in 1834 in Men and Manners found the whole idea of a watery 

grave very repugnant during his visit to the cemetery. The lurking pools of water and 

visible crayfish must have made more of an impression on him than did the 

aboveground tombs, as his comments reflect: 

One acquires from habit a sort of lurking prejudice in favour of being 
buried in dry ground, which is called into full action by a sight of this 
New Orleans cemetery. The space cannot penetrate even a few inches 
below the surface, without finding water, and considerable difficulty is 
experienced in sinking the coffins, since the whole neighbourhood could 
not furnish a stone the size of an orange.'^ 



' ' Cyril Thorntoa Men and Manners in America. 2"^ ed %'ol. II (Edinburgh; William Blackwood 1834). 2 15. 



16 



Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 



By the travel accounts of Ingraham (1835), Didimus (1845), and Lady Emmeline 
Stuart Wortley (1848-50) and Fredrika Bremer (1855), the beauty of the aboveground 
tombs of St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 and 2 were better appreciated and the concern of 
inground watery graves ceased to be mentioned.^" It is during this time that the well- 
read traveler became aware of cemetery advances in Paris at Pere Lachaise, established 
in 1 804, and the rural cemeteries such as Mt. Auburn (183 1) in Massachusetts or 
Greenwood (1835) in Brooklyn, NY. It is also by the mid 1830s that the marble clad 
tombs designed by French emigre Jacques Nicolas Bussiere dePouilly were commissioned 
by prominent families for tombs in St. Louis Cemeteries No. 1 and 2 turning St. Louis 
Cemetery No. 1 and especially No. 2 into a more monumental park.^' 

In 1875, Mark Twain summed up the unique situation of New Orleans' architectural 
necropolis: 

There is no architecture in New Orleans, except in the cemeteries" and 
went on to describe the cemetery and the well-maintained nature of the 
individual tombs. . They bury their dead in vaults above ground. 
These vaults have a resemblance to houses - - sometimes to temples; are 
buih of marble, generally; are architecturally graceful and shapely; they 
face the walks and driveways of the cemetery; and when one moves 
through the midst of a thousand or so of them, and sees their white roofs 
and gables stretching into the distance on every hand, the phrase 'city of 
the dead' has all at once a meaning to him. Many of the cemeteries are 



- Joseph Holt Ingraham. The South - West By a Yankee, vol. 1 (New York: Harper & Brothers 1835) 
145.154-55; H. Didimus. New Orleans As I Found It (New York: Harper & Brothers. 1845) Lady 
Emmelme Stuart Wortley. Trax'els in the United States etc. During 1848 and 1850 (New York Harper 
& Brothers. Publishers. 1851). 126; Fredrika Bremer. The Homes of the New World: Impressions of 
America, trans. Mary Howett (New York: Harper and Brothers. 1854). 214. 

- Massoa Ann M. "Pere La Chaise and New Orleans Cemeteries." The Southern Quarterly A Journal 
of the Arts in the South 3 1 . no. 2 (Winter 1 993 ) 82-97. 



^7 Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 

beautiful and kept in perfect order . . . if those people down there would live 
as neatly while they were alive as they do after they are dead, they would 
find many advantages to it.^^ 

In the mid 1870s, George Fran9ois Mugnier photographed St. Louis Cemetery No. 1, 
leaving us many images of the cemetery tombscapes while it was still an active 
cemetery. The Society tombs that now dominate the view of the western section of St. 
Louis Cemetery No. 1 had already been built. Most family tombs seen in the Mugnier 
views are pediment tombs or large platform and parapet tombs with multiple vaults. 
By this time, many of the early single vault platform tombs had been "made-over" to 
accommodate multiple vault family burials. These "addition" tombs can be identified by 
changes in brick coursing or stucco, or tell-tale construction lines and odd placement of 
original tablets. 

By the late 1870s, the images of St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 were defined by the large 

society tombs, such as those sketched by A. R. Waud, and published in 1867 by 

Harpers Weekly and by the photography of Mugnier. In 1879, a reporter for Times 

Picayune wrote about All Saints' Day, during which families and society members 

repaired, cleaned, whitewashed and decorated the tombs. 

The cemetery on Basin and St. Louis Streets [No. 1] witnessed a large 
concourse of people . . . Here the tomb of the Lusitanos Portuguese 
Benevolent Association is situated. It was draped in mourning and 
surmounted by various Portuguese flags. The Italian Benevolent 
Society's fine tomb was decorated with flags and draped in black. The 



Louis M. Hacker, ed. Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi. (New York: Sagamore Press. Inc.. 1957), 223. 

IS Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 

Societe Fran^aise, Orleans Artillery, Catalan Society, Sieurs Bien 
Aimee and other societies bedecked their tombs in becoming manner." 



2.4 The Evolution of Restoration Practices 

By the end of the nineteenth century, St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 had fallen out of favor 

as New Orleans residents moved out to the more fashionable cemeteries of Lafayette 

and Metairie. As interment activity fell, so did visitation and family maintenance 

activities. Grace King, the noted New Orleans historian, wrote in 1895 of a cemetery 

that was no longer open to visitors: 

The crumbling bricks of the first resting-places built there are still to be 
seen, draped over with a wild growth of vine, which on sunshiny days 
are alive with scampering, flashing, green and gold lizards. It opens its 
gates only at the knock of an heir, so to speak; gives harbourage only to 
those who can claim a resting place by the side of an ancestor.^'* 

Lafcadio Hearn was less flattering when he wrote of his city's earliest 

cemeteries. His harsh words were not for the manner of burial, but for what the 

lack of care and maintenance had caused in the cemetery: 

They are hideous Golgothas, these old intramural cemeteries of ours. 
... The tombs are fissured, or have caved in, or have crumbled down 
into shapeless masses of bricks and mortar, the plaster falling away, 
betrays the hollow mockery of the frail monuments. ^^ 



^ New Orleans Times Picayune. November 1, 1879. 

^^ Grace King, New Orleans: The Place and The People (New York: Macmillan and Co., 1895), 401. 
"'' Lafcadio Heam Creole Sketches. Charles Woodward Hutson. ed. (Houghton MiflQin Company; 
Boston and New York, 1924), 137. This publication reprinted work by Heam written in 1885. 

19 Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

In the 1885 Historical Sketch Book and Guide to New Orleans and Environs, the 

authors described St. Louis 1 Cemetery and its condition: 

... the older cemeteries, such as the St. Louis, . . . were once the outskirts of 
the town, are now in the heart of the populous parts of the city, and every 
consideration of public sanitation demands that they be closed against 
further interments. ... In this cemetery many of the oldest tombs are so 
dilapidated that they cannot be identified and some are missing 
altogether. ■^^ 

In 1900, it was stated in the Standard History of New Orleans: "Many of the tombs are 

empty and falling to pieces, the tablets gone, or so worn by winter's storms and 

summer's heats that the inscriptions are no longer legible."^^ 

In 1923, in response to these conditions, Grace King and other concerned citizens 
formed the Society for the Preservation of Ancient Tombs. The 1 50 members, 
undertook a research project to determine the location and condition of tombs of 
greatest historical significance, and started efforts to have them restored. '^^ During the 
WPA (Works Progress Administration) projects of the 1930s, the documentation 
research was extended and inscriptions for most of the tombs were documented for 
each New Orleans cemetery. The card files of this research are now archived at the 
New Orleans Public Library. 



^* Historical Sketch Book and Guide to New Orleans and Environs, With Map (New York: Will H. 
Coleman. 1885). 223, 225. 

"' A.G. Dumo. "Old Burial Places," Standard History of New Orleans, Heniy Rightor ed. (Chicago: 
Lewis Publishing Co, 1900), 257. 

^* Christovich. introduction by Samuel Wilson, Jr., ix. 

20 Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 



It is clear that the interest generated by the Society for the Preservation of Ancient 
Tombs and the new information provided by the WPA project created momentum for 
tomb repair and maimenance. There are many early tombs in St. Louis Cemetery No. 
1 with original brick walls and cornice details, now patched or completely recoated in 
modern cement stucco. Many of these repairs may have occurred during the 
emhusiasm generated by the work of King's group and the new cemetery information 
published by the WPA, in a time before the developmem of professional conservation 
practices. 

In 1948, Joseph S. Carey wrote the Saint Louis Cemetery Number One Souvenir 
Booklet which comains photographs of the cemetery and a self-guided walking tour of 
famous tombs and residents.^^ By this time, the cemetery's condition had been 
improved enough to invite the public back in for visits. In the later publications of The 
St. Louis Cemeteries of New Orleans by Samuel Wilson, Jr. and Leonard V. Huber in 
1963, 1988 and 2001, this original list of highlighted tombs is repeated v^th very little 
new research added.'" During the 1970s and early 1980s, several large restoration 
projects were completed by the Archdiocese and bronze plaques were added to many 
of the tombs highlighted in Carey's booklet. 



- Joseph S. Carey. Saint Louis Cemetery Number One. Som'enir Booklet (New Orleans- St Louis 
LathediaL 1948). 

''Samuel WUson. Jr. and Leonard V. Huber. The St. Louis Cemeteries of New Orleans (New Orleans" 
St. Louis Cathedral, 1963 and 1988). ^^" 



^^ Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



In 1974, Mary Louise Christovich, New Orleans author and historian, founded Save 
Our Cemeteries, Inc. (SOC) in an effort to increase awareness of the restoration needs 
of the city's cemeteries and to build support to stop the nine city-block demolition of 
the condemned wall vaults of St. Louis Cemetery No. 2 by the Archdiocese. That same 
year, the Friends of the CabUdo and LA State Museum published a cemeteries volume of the 
New Orleans Architecture Series (Vol. m), hoping to "focus attention and inspire positive 
action for the protection and preservation of what remains of this priceless historical and 
architectural heritage. "^^ 



Since that time, sporadic conservation 
projects by families, the Archdiocese and 
cemetery preservation groups have been 
completed at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 . 
The Archdiocese has encouraged tomb 
owners to place their tombs under the 
Perpetual Care program which ensures 
that the tomb will be maintained long after 
the final interment. While this program 
could be beneficial toward the 
preservation of these historic tombs, the 




Fig. 2.8 Tomb #475, .A Perpetual Care tomb 
being rebuilt, replacing the original historic 
materials. 



Christovich. introduction by Samuel Wilsoa Jr. .\ of Forward. 



22 



Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 



actual results had quite the opposite effect. Tombs placed under Perpetual Care have 
been completely or partially dismantled and a new tomb or roof of reinforced concrete, 
painted bright white, has been erected in its place. Often, only the original marble tablet 
is preserved, to be inset into the side of the concrete tomb while a gray granite tablet is 
placed in the vault opening. These new 
tombs bear very little resemblance to the 
historic tombs that remain in the cemetery, 
and are quite visually jarring to the overall 
appearance of the cultural landscape that 
the cemetery has become. ^^ 

Also distracting are tomb restorations by ^'^ -^ Marble tablet repaired with an 

incompatible epoxy adhesive. 

families and tomb restoration groups, who 

are not well informed on appropriate conservation practices, such as advocated by the 
Secretary of the Interior Standards for Historic Preservation, or specific guidelines for 
cemetery preservation published by the State of Louisiana." 




During the 1981 survey, there were 7 Perpetual Care tombs noted. By the 2001 sunev. the number 
had grown to 57. There were 10 additional tombs without a Perpetual Care plaque that were marked 
with a special informational plaque as "Restored by the Archdiocese." 

" Kay D. Weeks and Anne E. Grimmer, The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of 
Histonc Properties with GuideUnes for Preserving. Rehabilitating. Restoring & Reconstructing Historic 
Bmldmgs. Washington. DC: National Park Service. 1995; Frank G. Matero. Cemeterv Presen'ation 
The Restoration of Above Ground Masonry Tombs, New Orleans. LA: Louisiana Division of Historic 
Preservation. Save Our Cemeteries. Inc.. 1989. 



23 



Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

In spite of these issues, the current situation at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 is 
encouraging. Through funding and support by the Louisiana Division of Historic 
Preservation, Office of Cultural Development and Tourism, Save Our Cemeteries, Inc. 
and the Archdiocese of New Orleans, the results of the Survey, the restoration of three 
pilot tombs and the second phase of research on history, tomb construction and 
material properties have been completed and incorporated into new guidelines for the 
site. The Archdiocese, as owner and manager of the site, is actively involved with the 
preservation planning process. Tomb restoration funding has been made available with 
a grant from Save America 's Treasures and a project team is working to stabilize 
emergency tomb conditions and complete a full tombscape conservation project on 
Alley 9-L, in the northwest comer of the site. It is hoped that the information and 
scenarios of decay developed in this research can provide meaningful assistance to tomb 
owners and people in cemetery management, as well as the many enthusiastic 
volunteers willing to provide donations and physical labor towards fiiture tomb 
conservation and restoration. 



2-t Historical Context 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YAT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Fig. 2.10 Bergamini Tomb #12, 

One of the SOC pilot restoration tombs. 

Photograph by Studio, March 2001. 



25 



Historical Context 



3.0 TOMB DECAY MECHANISMS 



3.1 Development of Hypotheses 



This research was initiated to investigate how known decay mechanisms have impacted 
the tombs at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1, given how the structures were originally 
designed to function and endure. The tomb designs and original materials of 
construction, primarily local brick protected by lime and hydraulic stuccos, were 
selected empirically by generations of New Orleans craftspeople. Over time, 
alterations have been made to many of the tombs, and both structural and material 
changes have been considered in this research, although the hypotheses formed assumed 

that mismatches in 
material properties and the 
local hot, humid wet 
environment would be the 
most important factors. 



Tools rMachine) 


Construction (Method) 




Mason's Tools 


Tomb Type 






Tools for Marble 


Compressive 


Stress 




Cleaning Tools 


Tensile Stress 




Groimds Tools 


Shear Stress 






Conservator's Tools 


Later Additions 




Bunal Impacts 


Roof Weigh 










\ 


Tomb 
Decay 


Temperature / 


Local N4anagement 


Bnck, Mortar Properties 


Humidity / 
RamfeU / 




Stucco Properties 
Material Incompatibility- 




Volunteer Restoration 




Wind 


Lost Traditions 


Moisture Response 




Soil Type 


Grounds Mamtenance 


Strength. Flexibility 




Supported Organisms 


Vandalism 


Porosity 




Vegetation 


Tourism 


Impuntiea 




Salts m Soils 


Local Oaftspeople 


Material Composition 




Subsidence 


Conservators 


Thermal, Hygnc Movement 




Ground Water 


Lack of Maintenance 


Composite System 




Environment 


Uixman A&encv 


Vlate rials 





Fig. 3. 1 Cause-and-effect diagram for tomb decay. 



A cause-and-effect 
diagram, as a visually 
oriented problem solving 
tool, highlights the major 



26 



Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



categories where problems occur in any situation where variation or deterioration is 
active. The historical context and technical literature review uncovered many of the 
potential causes under the categories of people, tools and techniques. The laboratory 
analyses focused on materials and environment. 

In the development of the hypotheses, tomb construction, the specific properties of the 
materials of construction, and environmental impacts were considered. This consisted 
of a review of tomb structure, form and function, historic information and performance 
property issues with each primary building material, as well as the specific New 
Orleans' environmental factors contributing to decay. With that information as 
background, decay mechanisms were evaluated for their potential as the primary 
drivers to surface and structural degradation at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 

3.2 Tomb Construction - Form and Function 

The major purposes of the structural systems of the building, and in this case, a tomb, 
are to protect the interior contents fi-om exterior forces. A pooriy designed structure 
will not last long enough to serve the multi-generational burial needs and the tombs at 
St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 have actually performed well over time in their function to 



These "Fishbone" cause-and-effect diagrams are often used to solve problems in manufacturing 
systems or service processes, but can also be useful when diagnosing conservation issues. They were 
popularized in the U.S. by Dr. Kaora Ishikawa. a Japanese quaht> control expert. The five kev areas in which 
aU sources of variation can be found are maa machine (tools), method (technique, procedure)', material and 
emironment. These fi\ e categories are often renamed to bett er fit the specific process or problem 

2 7 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

protect the interred. Deterioration has occurred primarily due to the structure's 
lessening ability to minimize mechanical stresses, because of the gradual 
disintegration, or replacement, of what were once adequate and properly erected 
structural systems. ^^ Once deformations began to occur, the crystalline nature of the 
building materials reacted to deformation stress by cracking on the microscopic and 
macroscopic levels. 

The majority of the tombs in St. Lx)uis Cemetery No. 1 are simple constructions of 
stucco covered brick. With the exception of the step tombs, most of the tombs are 
meant to contain one or more aboveground interments, each in an individual vauh. 
According to a city ordinance, after at least one year and one day, a vault can be 
reopened, the casket burned or discarded and the decomposed remains can be 
transferred to the lowest caveau level, or pushed to the back of the vault, if the family 
requires space for another interment. ^^ 

For illustration purposes, each level or tier of vaults can be considered a floor and the 
caveau, if it exists, can be thought of as the basement. Tombs can be structurally 
described, as would an architectural building, by the number of floors (tiers) and bays 
over a basement (caveau) level and covered by a roof of a specific style. The openings 
in the tomb are created by the vault openings, which are sealed by loose brick and 



Samuel Y. Harris, Building Pathology (New York: John Wiley & Sons. 2001). 58. 

Interview with Michael Boudreaiix. Director. Archdiocesan Cemeteries of New Orieans on March 13. 2001. 

28 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

mortar and covered by a closure tablet made historically of marble. The modem tablets 
are often of granite. 





^\ 








____^ 










1 1 
1 1 


u u 


1 1 
1 i 




Tier 2 




Tien 




1 1 1 




1 
Tiers 


2 3 
Bays 


4 



Fig. 3.2 Vault configurations for aboveground tombs. 
Sketches from the Sun'ey Manual. 

In the simplest low step tomb, the brickwork generally follows the form of the casket 

over which it was buih, and these tombs were not meant to be reused.^' However, for 

the majority of the multi-vault tombs in St. Louis Cemetery No. 1, the structural system 

consisted of load bearing brick masonry walls, generally at least 2 wythes wide, with 

stepped brickwork or arches forming each vauU. The brickwork was laid in various 

bonds, but generally the exterior wythe was an American bond with several (4-6) 

courses of stretchers before a header course was laid. In many of the tombs, a stone 

slab was placed over the vauh to provide a supportive floor to the next vault or to the 

roof Most of the tombs in St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 did not have a separate stone 

foundation, ahhough many had a thicker brick base composed of an extra wythe of 

brick for 2 or more courses. In tombs that have had later additions, the upper addition 



Of the 1 7 low step tombs suneyed. only 1 had a tablet hsting more than one interment. 



29 



Tomb Decav Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



may be slightly smaller than the original tomb, with the original tomb creating an 
apparent wider base. 




Fig. 3.3 Apparently, this 
pediment tomb was built 
over an earlier .step or 
platform tomb. Note the 
different bricks used for 
each different period of 
construction. 



Depending on the tomb style, non-structural brickwork was used to form a pediment or 
a high parapet over the vault openings to create an impressive tomb entrance. Intricate 
profile cornices were often formed around this brickwork with stucco. All local 
brickwork was protected by stucco and most tombs were originally limewashed in 
white or earth colors. Multiple layers of both stucco and surface finish can be seen on 

many of the tombs representing 
generations of choice in both 
color and materials. 







•>■>■■• '^^^.. 



0-\ 




Fig. 3.4 Tomb # 267 Multiple layers 
of finish, 1 2.5 X magnification. 

Fig. 3.5 Tomb # 600, Multiple 
stucco layers. Original "Tan " lime 
stucco on bottom. More recent 
"Gray " cementitious stucco on top. 
12.5 X magnification. 



30 



Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



The wall and roof closure systems, and all additional structural elements added to keep 
openings and cavities from compromising the purpose of the structure, worked together 
to minimize distortion and protect the interior contents. The walls, acting as the 
vertical closure system, provided barrier protection from corrosive and deteriorative 
elements, and served to carry the roof The stucco layers of the wall protected and 
ensured the structural integrity of the brick super-structure, while the brick masonry 
provided protection for the interior space. As designed, in an unbroken layer, the 
stucco served its function well by keeping water, windblown seeds and biological 
growth away from the interior brick and mortar. However, when not maintained, 
cracks that developed in the stucco could channel water into the structure, where it 
would cause serious structural degradation. 

The roof closure system served to collect and divert water away from the tomb, and 
provided structural stabilization to the tops of the walls. The components of this 
system included the roof and any additional site or design elements that affected the 
water drainage ability of the tomb. The most critical function of the tomb roof was to 
keep falling or wind-driven water out of the interior structural brickwork. If the roof 
system was breached by any small crack, water could enter and many of the decay 
processes would be initiated. Once the roof failed, deterioration of the tomb structure 
was rapid. 



^ I Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 

In an architectural structure, one would normally design openings and cavities for 
ventilation and human comfort. In the St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 tombs, there were no 
"live" inhabitants, and the openings were rarely unsealed. The openings are part of the 
arched or trabeated vauh and the weight of the structure is completely supported by the 
brick walls and the arch or slab. The opening was sealed with odd bricks and mortar, 
and usually stuccoed over and then faced with a closure tablet of marble or other stone. 
The opening did not compromise the structure, and while sealed, the closure tablet 
system over the mortared opening was effective in protecting the interior of the tomb 
from water intrusion. Even where tablets were loose or cracked, the vertical nature of 
the tablet was still effective as a closure system. Based on numerous visits to this site, 
it was apparent that the social and cultural taboos of an open tomb are such that these 
openings were not allowed to stay unsealed long because of decay and deterioration, 
even though the rest of the tomb structure may be completely compromised. Tombs that 
become opened through vandalism are closed by the Archdiocesan Cemeteries' staff. 

3.3 Construction Materials 

3.3.1 The Integrated Assembly System 

The tombs at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 are composite systems made up of disparate 
construction materials, each with its own distinct properties. According to Binda and 



32 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Anzani, "Modeling a masonry stnicture is a difficult task, since masonry does not 
apparently respect any hypothesis assumed for other materials (isotropy, elastic 
behavior, homogeneity). . masonry must be viewed as a composite. Its mechanical 
properties are derived from the properties of the components''^^ To begin to understand 
the system, the individual material properties were studied, then interactions at the 
interfaces were considered based on the individual decay mechanisms. 

3.3.2 Brick 

The American Society for Testing Materials and Materials defines brick as "a solid 
masonry unit of clay or shale, usually formed into a rectangular prism while plastic and 
burned or fired in a kiln. Brick is a ceramic product."^^ Historically, brick have long 
been manufactured locally in America, as the raw materials of clay and sand can be 
found everywhere.'^ Solid brick was the traditional structural masonry building 
material in New Orieans, as there was no local stone. Buildings seen in the earliest 
drawings show construction in wood, before brick was available locally. Stone or brick 
were not available in the lower Mississippi valley and along the Gulf Coast. As a result, a 
mixture of mud and moss called boiisillage, and soft bricks or tabby, [the latter] a mixture of 



^* "ASTM C43," 1998 Annual Book of ASTM Standards Vol. 04.05 (W. Conshohocken, PA ASTM. 
1998). 28. 

^' Ward Bucher. ed. Dictionary of Building Preservation. (New York: John Wiley & Sons. Inc.. 1 9%). 65. 
Harley J. McKee. Introduction to Early American Masonrv, Stone, Brick, Mortar and Plaster 
(Washington DC: National Trust for Historic Preservatioa 1973). 41. 



^^ Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



ground sea shell and water, were substituted."" In 1727, Marie Madeleine Hachard, a young 
Ursuline sister wrote of New Orleans: 

. . . very pretty, well constructed and regularly built ... the houses are 
very well built of colombage et mortier. . . . The colonists substituted 
locally made soft brick for the stone and added clay mixed with Spanish 
moss as insulation - an idea borrowed from the Indians."*^ 

Historical references differ slightly on the establishment of the first brickyard on 

Bayou St. John. According to Wilson, De Morand, acting Engineer of the City in 

1726, had established the first brick yard in New Orleans in 1725, and eventually 

acquired its ownership.^^ According to Cizek, "The Company of the Indies opened the 

city's first brickyard in 1725, on Bayou Road.'"*^ In another reference, taken from the 

Mississippi Provincial Archives, "The first brickyard was established outside New 

Orleans on Bayou St. John in September, 1726, employing several white artisans and 

fourteen black workers. During its first twenty-five months of operation, the yard 

produced 400,000 bricks.""*^ "About 1727, a second brickyard was established by the 

Jesuits outside New Orleans.'"*^ 



" Fred Daspit Louisiana Architecture 1714-1830. (Lafayette, LA: The Center for Louisiana Studies 
1996). 5. 

'- Mary Cable. Lost New Orleans. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1980). 7. Cable explains that 
colombage et mortier was a Colonial adaptation of a Norman construction method that traditionally 
combined stone and timber. 

Samuel Wilsoa Jr. The Vieux Carre New Orleans Its Plan. Its Growth, Its Architecture. Historic 
District Demonstration Study. Conducted by Bureau of Governmental Research New Orleans Louisican 
for the City of New Orleans. ( 1 %8). 23 . 

■'■' Cizek. Eugene. "Beginnings." Louisiana Buildings 1720- 1940: The Historic American Buildings 
Sun'ey. Poesch, Jessie and Barbara SoRelle Bacot. eds. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Universitv Press 
1997). 17. • 

^■' Mills Lane, Architecture of the Old South: Louisiana. (New York: Beehive Press. 1990). 23, quoting 
Dmbai Rowlaivi and Alben Godfrey Sands:TS.AfississippiPro\'incial Archives V (Baton Rouge 1984) 116 

'* Ibid. 23. ■ 6 > A ■ 



^■^ Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

Visitors to New Orleans often reported on the brick construction/^ but it was not until 

the almost complete loss of wood buildings in the great fires of 1788 and 1794 that 

New Orleans became a city of brick. Laughlin described New Orleans architecture: 

"Known as briquette entre poteaux, it consisted of using a fi-amework of timbers 

packed in between with soft bricks, and supporting a segmented tile roof, whose 

flashing and chinking was done with mortar ... All walls were then plastered over to 

seal the bricks.'"*^ As a result of the 1788 fire, and another in 1795, Spanish authorities 

declared new building regulations for New Orleans. These regulations required that 

houses be built within the central fortified area and that: 

In order to prevent fires in the ftiture . . . should all be constructed of 
brick or lumber and filled with brick between the upright posts, the 
posts to be covered with cement of at least one inch thick, "^^ 

The poor quality of the early New Orleans bricks and the necessity that they be 

protected from weathering by plaster has been highlighted by many writers. In 1913, 

Owen Allison told fellow architects what might be found in New Orleans: 

. . he will find simple grace and dignity imparted with a master's skill to rotten, 
old, soft red brick made from the batture mud of the Mississippi, covered for 
the most part with stucco of lime obtained from the burning of oyster shells. 



Ibid, 26. Quoted Honore Michel de la Rouvelliere in 1752 and Philip Pittman in the 1770s. from 
Philip Pittman, The Present State of the European Settlements on the Mississippi (London. 1770). 42-43; 
David Lee SterUng. ed. "New Orleans. 180 1 : An Account by John Pinlard." Louisiana Historical Quarterly, 
Vol. 34. No. 3 (Jul>' 1 95 1 ), 230. John Pintard also commented on the brick buildings in New Orleans. 
^^ Laughlin, C.J. "The Architecture of New Orleans" Architectural Re\'iew v. 100 (1946 Aug.): 35-36. 
Barbara SoRelle Bacot . "New Orleans After the Fires" Louisiana Buildings 1720 - 1940: The 
Historic American Buildings Survey. Jessie Poesch and Barbara SoRelle Bacot, eds. (Baton Rouge 
Louisiana State University' Press. 1997). 42: Lane. 26; and Samuel Wilson. Jr.. "The ArchitecUire of 
New Orleans.' ,4Z4 Journal. (August 1959): 32-35. All have taken this quote from theRecords and 
Deliberations of the Cabildo, IV. typescript, WPA. 1936. 



^5 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

and in which are imbedded good old cypress beams as sound today as when 
first hewn. ^^ 

The soft river bricks, called simply "reds" by local masons, were not the only bricks 

used in New Orleans. Toward the middle of the nineteenth century, clay deposits of 

good quality were discovered on the bay coast at Ponchatoula and Slidell. Bricks made 

from this clay were hard enough to allow exposure, although they were usually also 

protected with stucco or painted.^' These lake bricks are locally called "tans" and are often 

spotted with partially burnt iron impurities. Joseph Holt Ingraham writing in The South- 

West by a Yankee in 1835 described the parishes north of Lake Pontchartrain: 

They burn great quantities of lime from the beds of shells, which cover 
large tracts near the lakes; they also send sand from the beaches of the 
lakes, for covering the pavements of New Orieans. They have also, for 
some years past, manufactured brick to a great amount, and have 
transported them across the lake.^^ 

Brickmaking was an important industry in New Orleans during the nineteenth century. 
According to Rightor's Standard History of New Orleans, 

Among the ante-bellum industries which did well in New Orleans because it did not 
pay to carry them on elsewhere, were naturally the building trades and the 
manufacture of building materials - brick, tile, lumber, etc. The brick was made 
almost exclusively in New Orieans, or at points aaoss the lake in St. Tammany 
parish." 



'° Allison Owen, "The Architectural Charm of Old New Orleans." Journal of the American Institute of 
Architects, vol. 1. (1913): 426. 

Samuel Wilson. Jr. and Bernard Lemann. New Orleans Architecture Vol. 1 The Lower Garden 
District (Gretna. LA: Pelican Publishing. 1971). 59. 
^' Ingraham 275. 
H. Rightor. Standard History of New Orlea ns (Chicago: Lewis Publishing Co.. 1900). 514. 

•^6 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



New Orleans was also a busy shipping port and could import face bricks for important 
civic construction work. One customs manifest from 1821 to 1832 showed the 
importation of brick from Boston, Amsterdam, Antwerp, Philadelphia, Alexandria, 
Liverpool, New York, Genoa, Baltimore and Pensacola. The bricks imported included 
"35,000 bricks and freestone for Custom House 1/9/1821", "Fire" bricks, "Hard" bricks 
and "Blown" bricks.^'* 

The tombs in St. Louis Cemetery No, 1 were based on the local brick building traditions, 
and all but two of the tombs surveyed are of local hand made orange-red river brick or tan 
and/or spotted lake brick. This tradition is further verified by the many historical 
references made by Benjamin Latrobe and other cemetery visitors in the nineteenth century 
to plastered brick. 

As a construction material, brick served St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 well. Brick has high 
compressive strength (2,000 to 6,000 Ib/sq. in. depending on mode of manufacturing) 
which can easily carry the load of the tomb structure and its minimal contents. Brick 
has low tensile strength, so must span voids in an arched or vaulted manner where 
tensile stress can be converted to compressive stress." The tomb vaults were 
constructed in such a manner. However, there are flat roofs at considerable risk on 
tombs in the cemetery that do not have arched support. 



54 

Customs Manifest -YedQisl Archives. N.O., LA. Brick. 1/9/1821 to 7/5/1832. 

Cecil C. Handisyde. Building Materials: Science and Practice fLondon: Architectural Piess, 1%1). 66. 



^7 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Brick has a low coefficient of thermal expansion as compared to lime or cement 
mortar, and as long as the clays are fully fired, the amount of expansion due to 
moisture absorption is negligible.'^ The slightly rough surface of handmade brick 
provided a good mechanical key to lock in bedding mortars and stucco coverings. The 
soft porous brick had high porosity and could adjust well to variations in capillary rise 
in ground water. Brick would absorb water in relation to their porosity, with lowest 
density brick absorbing more than higher." The river "reds" were more porous and would 
be expected to absorb more moisture than the lake "tans" at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 . 

Brick, and its deterioration, has been the topic of considerable research. Deterioration 
issues are mostly related to water; water eroding exposed, poorly fired areas of brick, 
water depositing sahs within the pores fi-om the soil or airborne pollution, water 
breaking down the adhesion between brick and mortar, or between brick and stucco, 
water related fi-eeze-thaw damage, or water initiated corrosion of attached or embedded 
metal. Even with these deterioration risks, brick construction is very durable. 
According to one brick admirer, "It is well known that clay bricks are usually extremely 



Torraca, Giorgio. Porous Building Materials: Materials Science for Architectural Conser\>ation. 
(Rome: ICCROM. 1981). 29. The thermal expansion coefficient for a common brick is 510^ vs. cement 
mortar at 10-1110 and a lime mortar at 8-1010^: Robinson. Gilbert C. "Characterization of Bricks and 
their Resistance to Deterioration Mechanisms." Conservation of Historic Stone Buildings and Monuments 
N.S. Baer, ed. (Washingtoa D.C.: National Academy Press, 1982). 157. Reports that the moisture exiansion for 
brick is usually less than 0.04%. 

D. Hoffmann, and K. Niesel. "Moisture Movement in Brick." Proceedings : In Vth International 
Congress on Deterioration and Conser\>ation of Stone. Lausanne, 25-27.9.1985, G. Felix, ed. vol. 1 
(Lausanne. Suisse: P resses Polytechniques Romandes. 1985). 103. 

^S Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO 



durable and that although they may change in appearance after considerable exposure, they 
usually do so in a manner which is pleasant rather than otherwise."^^ 

3.3.3 Mortar, Stucco, Plaster and Render'^ 

Mortar, stucco, plasters and renders are all members of a group of adhesive mixtures 
containing compounds of lime, and certain allied compounds of magnesium, capable of 
uniting fragments or masses of solid matter to a compact whole which can be defmed as 
calcareous cements.^^ Another, definition is that "mortars, plasters and renders are 
combinations of binder pastes and fillers, with or without fibrous reinforcements and are 
used in, or applied to, a wide variety of masonry and lightweight backgrounds."^' The 
basic components are the binder paste, sand or aggregate, and water. The binder can be 
clayey soil, lime, hydraulic lime or cement.^^ 



*^ Handisyde, 176. 
"Plaster" is usually a term reserved to describe a ini.\ture used in the interior of a building, although 
m New Orleans, the term is commonly used to describe exterior coverings, such as those on the tombs at 
St. Loms Cemetery No. 1. "Render" and "stucco" are terms commonlv used to describe mixtures for 
exterior coverings, with "render" being used more by the European communitv and "stucco" used more 
often m the United States. For this document the term "stucco" will be used to describe exterior 
coatings, unless the term "plaster" is used in a historical quote, and the term "mortar" will be used to 
de^cnbe the mi.xture used in the construction of the brick waU. or for generic discussions of the class 

^^ F. M Lea, The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete (New Yoric: Chemical Pubhshing Company, 1 97 1 ). 1 . 
John Ashurst, Mortars, Plasters and Renders in Conservation (London: Ecclesiastical Architects' 
and Surveyors' Association, 1983), 9. 

- In modem language, "cement " is generally understood to mean Portland cement. However, the term 
was used historically and depending on the term's use , it often meant the hydraulic binder. 

39 Tomb Decay Mechamsnts 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

In this research, it was of interest to consider the hydraulicity of the stucco binder, as 
the primary reactions and issues of Hme, hydraulic lime and cement can contribute 
differently in certain decay mechanisms. It was also suspected that hydraulic limes 
were used in the exterior stucco at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 . 

Lime is derived from the burning (calcination) of one of the naturally occurring forms of 
calcium carbonate, such as shell, limestone, chalk or marble. In a mortar mix, the 
calcium oxide carbonates through the loss of H2O by a reaction with CO2 in the air. This 
is a slow process and the full cure can take years depending on many factors such as the 
thickness of the wall, exposure to air, relative humidity of the surrounding environment 
and any surface coatings. 



Calcination in a kiln at 880°C or 
above to drive off CO2. 



CaCOs 

Calcium Carbonate 

or limestone, shell, marble, etc. 

Upon exposure to 
Carbonation takes pla^ 
CO2 is taken from the 
atmosphere 





" CaO 

Calcium Oxide 
or Quicklime 

ThejQuicklime is 
ded to water - 
The process of 
Slaking 



Ca(OH)2 

Calcium Hydroxide 
or Slaked Lime 

Hydraulic limes are those achieved from certain argillaceous or clay-based limestone. 

When burned, calcium silicates and calcium aluminates are produced in addition to the 

calcium oxide. Hydraulic limes are set by hydration, a chemical reaction with water. 



40 



Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

and are referred to as "hydraulic" because of this fact. They also are called "hydraulic" 

for a second reason: when hardened, hydraulic lime mortars are water-resistant. The 

calcination process is similar to that for lime, except that kiln temperatures can be as 

high as 1200°C. The clay decomposes between 400 and 600°C and combines with 

some of the lime after 950°C. The calcination temperatures used in production, and the 

differing impurities found in argillaceous limestone, create a great deal of variation in 

hydraulic limes. Hydraulic limes are classified by their hydraulic ability as feebly 

hydraulic lime (<12% clay materials, sets in 15-20 days after immersion), moderately 

hydraulic lime (12%-18% clay materials, sets in 6-8 days after immersion) and 

eminently hydraulic lime (18%-25% clay materials, sets 2-4 days after immersion). ^^ 

Natural cements are actually eminently hydraulic limes. ^'* 

Example of one hydraulic phase, dicalcium silicate. 
2 CaOSi02 + H2O ^ Ca-Si02-H20 + Ca(0H)2 

Ca(0H)2 + C02 ^ CaCOs + H20 
CaO-Si02-H20 + CO2 ^ CaCOa + Si02 + H2O 

Lime mortars can also be made hydraulic by the addition of hydraulic materials, 
pozzolans, like ground brick or volcanic material. The final reaction results are the 
same as for the hydraulic lime. "From a practical point of view, hydraulic mortars used 
since the middle of the 18'*' century and containing hydraulic lime do not show, 
chemically and once hydrated, any significant difference when compared with lime- 



*^ The setting times are taken from L.J. Vicat. A Practical and Scientific Treatise on Calcareous 
Mortars and Cements, Artificial and Natural. Translated by Captain J.T. Smith. (1837 reprint London: 
Donhead Publishing Ltd., 1997), 6-8. 

'^ John Ashurst and Francis G. Dimes. Conser\'ation of Building & Decorative Stone. (O.xford: 
Butterworth Heinemann. 1998), 81. 

4 1 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

pozzolans mortars developed by the Romans, since the reaction products are the 
same."^^ Generally, there is no analytical need to distinguish a hydraulic lime from a 
lime mortar made hydraulic through the addition of hydraulic material. If so, optical 
microscopy is the best tool to observe the differences in the aggregate components. 

Addition of pozzolans material to a lime mix. 

CaO + H20^Ca(OH)2 

Ca(0H)2 + CO2 ^ CaCOs + H2O and Ca(0H)2 + Si02 + H2O -> CaO— Si02— H2O 

CaO-Si02-H20 + CO2 ^ CaCOs + Si02 + H2O 

The principal difference between natural hydraulic lime, or natural cement, and modem 
cement is in the temperatures of production. ^^ To produce modem cement, the lime is 
burned well above the sintering temperature of around MOOT, producing different 
hydraulic phases. The phase diagrams for cement are quite complex. As a gross 
simplification, the major hydraulic phase of cement is called C3S (3 CaO-Si02), or 
alite, whereas the dominant hydraulic phase in hydraulic lime is C2S (2 CaO'Si02), or 
belite. Also, because of the temperatures used in production, certain compounds, such as 
gehlenite, are no longer present in cement, and others would be found in very small 
quantities, such as free Ca(0H)2 and calcite. Of the four major phases of cement, alite, 
(50-70%, tricalcium silicate), belite (15-30%, dicalcium silicate), aluminate (5-10%, 
tricalcium aluminate), and ferrite (5-15%, tricalcium aluminoferrite), each has distinctive 



^' Philippe Gleize, et. al.. "Ancient Rendering Mortars fiom a Brazilian Palace: Its Characteristics and 
Microstructure," Cement and Concrete Research 30 (2000): 1613, quoting from M. Collepardi. "Degradation 
and Restoration of Masonry Walls of Historic Buildings," A/aterw/^/rMcrure 23 (1990): 81-102. 

** Modem cement generally means Portland cement 

42 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



phase change temperatures and crystalline forms." These small differences can be 
useful clues for a researcher analyzing for historic hydraulic lime. 

As mentioned in the section on brick, the brickwork in New Orleans was usually 
covered with stucco. Speaking of New Orleans architecture of the mid-nineteenth 
century, Curtis and Spratling said in 1925 that the natural surface of brick was not left 
exposed and that there was a universal distaste for the red color of brick. "Perhaps 
experience had taught that the brick obtainable were apt to be porous, hence liable to 
become damp and mouldy [sic] and easily discolored."^^ 

It is thought that due to the very wet climate in New Orleans, builders would have used 
hydraulic lime and natural cements in the nineteenth century. As early as 1703, Joseph 
Moxon advised that "lime made of hard Stone [containing clay], is fit for Structures, or 
Buildings, and Plastering without Doors or on the out side [sic] of Buildings that lie in 
the Weather."^^ In 1849, Joseph Gwilt discussed Smeaton and Higgens' work on chalk 
[pure lime] vs. stone lime [containing clay] with the aggressive conclusion that "there 
is no excuse for its [chalk lime] use and it should in sound building be altogether 



^ H.F.W. Taylor, Cement Chemistry (SmI>\Q%o: Academic Press. 1990), 1-32. 
N.C. Curtis, and WUliam P. SpraUing, "Architectural Tradition in New Orleans." The Journal of the 
American Institute of Architects, Vol. XIII. no. 8 (August 1925): 285. 

*' Joseph Moxoa Mechanick Exercises or the Doctrine ofHandvWorks. 2°^ ed, London (1703 reprinL 
Morristown. NJ: Astragal Press). 241. 



•^■^ Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

banished." Although no stone, clay containing or otherwise, available locally in 
New Orleans, the properties of "stone lime", or hydraulic lime would have been known 
to the cosmopolitan community of architects, and imported lime was available from the 
north. Natural cements, which are actually hydraulic lime, were first used on the Erie Canal 
in 1 8 1 8, and by 1 828 there were several cement works established in New York, 
Pennsylvania and Kentucky and product was shipped all over the developed part of the 
country.'^ 

Yet, in a review of the writings of New Orleans historians and architectural historians, 
there is little to be found to describe the binder composition of the historic mortar and 
stucco mixtures. One local architect, Henry W. Krotzer, who read many of the archival 
journals of the early New Orleans builders and researched available work orders and 
receipts from projects that occurred in the mid 1800s, said that he found very little 
specific information in the documents.'^ One small reference to an estimate of required 
"Cement (Hydraulic) - 14,370 barrels. Lime - 9,646 barrels. Sand - 52,619 barrels and 
Shells - 18,818 barrels" was found in the Thomas K. Wharton journals along with several 
indications that he was specifying lake brick for the new Customs House in 1854.'^ 



Joseph Gwilt The Encyclopedia of Architecture: The Complete Guide to Architecture, from 
Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century, (1867 reprint. New York: Bonanza Books, 1982), 533. 

^' Mckee. 68. 

'^ An interview with Henry W. Krotzer, March 20, 2002. 

'^ Samuel Wilson. Jr. ed. Queen of the South: New Orleans, 1853-1862 Journal of Thomas K. 
nitarton. New Orleans: Historic New Orleans Collection and NY Public Libran. 1999), 22. 32. 266. 

44 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Portland cement was also widely used at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1. The history of 
Portland cement begins in 1824 with Joseph Aspdin's patent on new and improved 
cement, called "Portland" because it resembled color of stone from Isle of Portland. 
The manufacturing of Portland cement began in the United States in the 1870s, in 
several locations. The industry grew rapidly. By 1878, there were 28,000 barrels 
reported to have been manufactured in the U.S. and by 1896, 1,543,023 barrels were 
reported.'^ By 1937, 1 18,000,000 barrels were produced in the United States." 

When analyzing historic materials, it is important to realize that the change to Portland 
cement did not happen all at once, but as a gradual evolution. The historic hydraulic 
limes, natural cements and early manufactured cements will all have similarities, 
particularly when mixed with local sand. The modem Portland cement mortars are 
made of materials that have been produced in very controlled and standardized 
processes and the differences seen in analytical techniques will be quite clear, and 
might not be representative of an earlier production time, so current cements are not 
good standards to use in historic mortar analysis.^^ 



' Jasper O. Draffin. "A Brief Histon' of Lime, Cement. Concrete and Reinforced Concrete" Journal of 
the Western Society of Engineers Vol. 48 No. 1 (March 1943): 5-37. He reports the data from Uriah 
C\imxamg&. American Cements (1898). 289. 

'' Draffin. 13, He reports this data from Cement and Concrete: A General Reference Book (Portland 
Cement Associatioa 1941). 

^ K.J. Callebaut. et. al.. "Nineteenth Century Hydraulic Restoration Mortars in the Saint Michael's 
Church (Leuven. Belgium) Natural Hydraulic Lime or Cement?" Cement and Concrete Research 3 1 
(2001): 403. 



■^5 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



The topic of historic mortar analysis and deterioration is a large and complex area of 
research. As in brick, most of the deterioration processes take place triggered by water. 
From ancient history, stucco has often been used with a fiill understanding that these 
processes will take place, and that they will take place most efficiently at the exterior 
surface. If the masonry is covered with stucco as a sacrificial exterior layer, the 
replaceable stucco will absorb the bulk of the damage, leaving the inner core safe. This 
logic holds, as long as the stucco layer is renewed periodically as it loses its functionality 
and becomes too deteriorated.^^ 

Considerable research has been directed to the topic of replacement mortars and stucco, 
as can be seen by many of the article titles in the bibliography at the end of this thesis. 
During the mid-twentieth century, war damaged resources in Europe were 
reconstmcted using Portland cement, and the heavy use of Portland cement continued 
for restoration projects well into the 1970s. The rate of deterioration was much greater 
than had been expected, and research projects soon identified the major causes. 
According to the concluding summary on historic mortars at the 2000 RILEM 
Workshop: "There is general agreement that the use of highly hydraulic cement based 
mortars for restoration and renovation has caused extensive damage to cultural heritage."'^ 



"' Torraca 108-109. 

'' Caspar J. W.P. Groot. Peter J.M. Baitos and John J. Hughes. "Historic Mortars: Characteristics and 
Tests - Concluding Summary and State-Of-The-Art." International RILEM Workshop on Historic 
Mortars: Characteristics and Tests. Paisley, Scotland 12"'-14"'Mav 1999. P. Bartos ed (Cachan France 
RILEM Publications, 2000). 450. 



■^6 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

The objections to the use of eminently hydraulic limes (natural cements), and 
especially Portland cement, are based on their high strength, more impermeable nature 
and the risk of transferring soluble salts to vulnerable masonry materials. Their 
adhesion properties are usually too good, particularly to old masonry, and their thermal 
expansion is often as much as twice as great. Any weakness caused by material 
movement will be transferred to the weaker material, and the stress will damage or 
break the historic material.'^ By being less permeable, OPC (ordinary Portland 
cement) will drive moisture in the direction of the more porous masonry, again forcing 
the deterioration mechanism to take place most aggressively in the historic material. *° 
It is now generally accepted conservation practice that repair mortars should exhibit 
properties already present in the in-situ material; must be compatible given the 
surrounding envirormiental factors; must be appropriate to the state of conservation (or 
deterioration) of the existing structure, especially for any damaging processes already 
in place; and must be suitable for the fianction of the mortar or stucco application under 
consideration.*' 



' Torraca 80. 

^° David Carrington and Peter Swallow. "Limes and Lime Mortars - Part Two. " Journal of 
Architectural Conservation, No. 1 (March 1996): 7-22. 

^' Rob P.J. Van Hees. "Damage Diagnosis and Compatible Repair Mortars." International RILEM 
Workshop on Historic Mortars: Characteristics and Tests, Paisley, Scotland 12"'-] 4"" May 1999. 
(Cachan, France; RILEM Publications. 2000). 27-35. 

47 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

3.3.4 Surface Finish 

The traditional St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 surface finish was lime wash. Limestone, or 
calcium carbonate, was calcined to decompose into calcium oxide, which, when immersed 
in water, hydrolyzed to calcium hydroxide. This material went onto the stucco as lime 
wash. As it dried, the calcium hydroxide reacted with the carbon dioxide in the air to reform 
as a new crystalline form of calcium carbonate, or calcite. The calcareous nature of lime 
based paints results in a coating of low opacity, creating the characteristic surface glow 
associated with lime washed surfaces. This effect has never been exactly duplicated in 
modem paint products. 

The lime served the purpose of filler and base pigment, although evidence exists that 
other tinting pigments were sometimes added. Through archival accounts and through 
modern microscopic cross- sections, we can verify that the tombs of St. Louis 
Cemetery No. 1 were often surfaced in earthen colored lime washes. The lime acted as 
the binder, forming a porous inorganic ionic crystalline structure which bound up any 
additional colorant (pigment) and provided body. The resultant crystalline structure 
was breathable and allowed continued carbonation of the much thicker stucco layer 



48 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

beneath. Lime wash was also mildly antiseptic, a useful temporary defense against 
bio-growth. ^^ 

Lime wash was not a long-lasting material and traditionally was reapplied every 1-3 years. 
It wore off by very fine losses as the crystalline bonds broke, a type of weathering 
deterioration that many find less objectionable than the blistering and peeling of modem 
latex paints. The purpose of the finish, beyond its decorative appeal, was to help the 
highly porous surface of the stucco shed water and resist biological growth. Surface 
finishes kept biological organisms fi^om attaching to the rough stucco, directed water 
down the tomb and away fi"om the structure and minimized water adsorption on the 
stucco surface. The finish would not be able to stop water absorption once liquid water 
reached the stucco and interior materials through either the capillary action of rising 
damp, or water leakage through cracks and openings in the system. Once that 
occurred, a modem non-breathable finish would do greater harm by making the 
desorption processes more difficult. 



The application of hydrophobic or waterproof finishes was an exercise in futility in this 
moist environment. The use of such a treatment assumed that all pores in the 
hydrophilic solid could be treated by deep impregnation, which did not generally 



" AshursL John and Francis G. Dimes. Conservation of Building & Decorative Stone (O.xford: 
Butterworth Heinemann. 1998). 229. 

49 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 



happen with available application techniques. Modem hydrophobic films are organic 
and subject to oxidation. They break down chemically with time and through UV 
degradation. As the film decomposes, color changes, usually to a yellow cast, and 
strength decreases. Water accumulation behind the film creates more problems, as water 
will eventually find a way into a very porous material by way of rising damp or micro 
cracks which will eventually develop in the surface finish or at construction joints.^^ 

3.3.5 Additional Components 

St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 offers many topics for research. The additional tomb 
components of marble, used for the closure tablet system, sculptural elements and 
limited tomb cladding, as well as the metalwork, used decoratively and for enclosures, 
were not included in this research. They also have experienced deterioration and many 
of the decay mechanisms discussed herein can also relate to these materials, since most 
deterioration is caused or exacerbated by exposure to moisture. Material properties and 
mechanical attachment issues differ, however, and fiirther research on these materials 
is warranted. 



Torraca, 117-118. 



50 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



3.4 Environmental Conditions 



3.4. 1 The Environment of New Orleans and the Cemetery Site 




As mentioned in Chapter 2, the 
environment and the constant battle to 
keep New Orleans dry feature largely in 
the history, culture and practices of the 
city. It is easy to believe the graphic 
historical accounts of watery graves and 
miasmic soil during any visit to St. Louis 
Cemetery No. 1 during a heavy summer 
downpour 



Fig. 3. 6 Flooding between the tombs, 
Oct. 2001. 



According to Rightor, "New Orleans is situated in a marsh. Its greatest natural 
elevation above the sea level is 10 feet 8 inches, which is artificially increased to 15 
feet by the levee on the river bank. . . it being impossible to dig three feet without 
striking water. Under these circumstances it is readily seen that burial, as understood 
in more elevated localities, is out of the question in New Orleans."^'' A modem New 
Orleans engineer described the city's topography as plates formed with sectioning 



Rightor. 256. 



5J 



Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

ridges. The ridges are 10-15 feet above sea level, but the heavily developed areas 
between are below sea level. ^' All water that enters must be pumped out. With heavy 
rainfall of 57 inches per year and the mighty Mississippi river surrounding most of the 
city, controlling water, particularly flood water, is very critical. The New Orleans 
pumps have a total capacity of 42,000 cubic feet per second or a little over a billion 
gallons per hour during rain load.^^ 

It is commonly believed that parts of New Orleans are sinking. Janssen reported on a 
study of fifteen permanent benchmarks (US Coast and Geodetic Survey marks, 
Louisiana Geodetic Survey, New Orleans Sewerage and Water Board, US Army Corps 
of Engineers) over 26 years. The results and his own calculations led Janssen to 
conclude that the average subsidence of the ground level is 1 . 12 ft, or 0.043 (approx. I/2 
inch) per year.^'' In another article, he reported that stepped-brick spread footings were 
popular in French Quarter construction and piling was apparently not used. He 
assessed settling of buildings in the French Quarter as fairly even, with a general 
downward movement without failure or major cracking of walls. ^* 



^' James S. Janssen, James S. "Draining New Orleans" Building New Orleans: The Engineer 's Role. A 
Collection of Writings. (New Orleans: Waldemar S. Nelson & Co. 1987). 23. 

** "The Pumps that Keep New Orleans Diy." Water Engineering & Management, (9/1/1999). 

*' James S. Janssen, "Changes in Elevations in the New Orleans Area". Building New Orleans: The 
Engineer's Role. A Collection of Writings. (New Orleans: Waldemar S. Nelson & Co. 1987). 18-19. 

** James S. Janssen. "Eaily Masonn,' in Nouvelle Orleans - Was Brick the AnswerT" Building New 
Orleans: The Engineer's Role. A Collection of Writings. (New Orleans: Waldemar S. Nelson & Co. 1987). 71. 

52 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DEC A Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



A different type of subsidence is believed by many to be occurring at the site. The 
partially buried lower vauhs in St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 are often offered as proof of 
this subsidence, with the assumption that the heavy brick structures are sinking into the 
marshy soil. Not enough research has been done to verify this as a fact, and the 
historic practice of adding shell and dirt fill to the cemetery paths to make passage 
easier during rainy seasons has certainly played an additional role in the height of the 
ground at the tomb bases. 

New Orleans, at Latitude 29.59 and Longitude 90.15, is not as hot as many perceive. 
High humidity in the hottest months makes the temperature feel higher than actual. 
The average temperature from May through September is 80.4°F, yet from October 
through April, it is very pleasant at 62°F on average. The temperature only rises above 
95 °F about 6 days a year, but rises above 90°F between 16-21 days in June through 
August. For most of the year, residents and tourists are quite comfortable. Freezing 
weather is rare. The highest winds average about 43.6 mph during the year, except in 
the September hurricane season where the average is 69 mph. There is usually at least 
one hurricane per year during that season. The rainy season is June through August 
with 12-13 days of rain per month and total days of rain are 114 per year.^^ 



*' Comparath'e Climatic Data Report for the U.S. Through 1999. Congressional Information Service. 
Inc. 2000. Additional facts taken 6/02 from NOAA website at w^^Tv.noaa.gov. 

53 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



According to the 1989 Soil Survey of Orleans Parish, St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 is 
located in land classified as Urban Land. Urban Land consists of areas where more 
than 85 percent of the surface is covered by asphalt, concrete, buildings, or other 
impervious surfaces. ^° The soil of the cemetery has a black clay surface layer about 6 
inches thick. This soil contains a large quantity of shell and shell fragments from the 
original paving materials. Historically, the groundcover of the cemetery was volunteer 
grass and the paths were shell, but a majority of the surfaces are now covered in 
asphalt, or more recently, concrete paving. Slope throughout the site was measured 
during the Survey to be less than 1 percent. 

3.4.2 Biological and Vegetative Growth 

The basic requirements for bio-receptivity include an availability of surface on which 
they can get anchorage; enough nutrients to sustain their development and growth; and 
adequate amounts of water to support their main physiological functions and, in many 
cases, their multiplication and dissemination. The rough surfaces and porous micro- 
cracked structures of the stucco, mortar and brick, are very conducive to the initiation 
and growth of the organisms of both the photosynthetic type that require sunlight, and 
the chemosynthetic type that can survive without sunlight.^' 



91 



Soil Survey of Orleans Parish (Washington: USD A. 1989). 



Rakesh Kumar. Biodeterioration of Stone in Tropical Environments (Los Angeles- Gettv 
Conservation Institute. 1999). 4. 



■'■^ Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

The growth process moves from small cell organisms to higher level plam life. 
Cyanobacteria and green algae are the first to colonize. They make a continuous bio- 
film that thickens as the numbers of species increase. As new taxa appear, the green 
algae decrease and a stratification of different species is established. When the bio- 
film layer is thick enough (about 100 jim), spores of mosses can germinate. These 
spores develop protonemas, which can turn into leafy stems after a few weeks. By this 
stage, hygrophilous species begin to take hold, humidity in the micro-environment 
increases, and higher forms of flora are possible, particularly so if there are cracks in 
the stucco or brick joints where humus has accumulated.^^ 

The expansive growth nature of these organisms exacerbates all of the decay 
mechanisms discussed herein. Most of the real damage is caused by biophysical 
deterioration by the growing organism. Cracks are pushed open, adhesive bonds are 
ruptured and delamination happens more rapidly. As higher order organisms and root 
systems develop, whole-scale detachments occur and individual materials can be 
broken, crushed and forced apart. Biochemical deterioration, where the organism 
produces corrosive acids and enzymes that damage the substrate material, or where the 
organism uses material minerals from the substrate as a source of nutrition, also occurs 
at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1, but is not a major cause of decay. 



■ O. Guillitte. "Biorecepti\it\ and Biodeterioration of Brick Structures," Conservation of Historic 
Brick Structures, ed. N.S. Baer. et. al. (Dorset: Donhead, 1999). 70. 

55 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



The bio-growth organisms and higher vegetation are also damaging aesthetically, as 
they create soiled surfaces, mask original details and detract from the original design intent 
of the structure. This visual damage is subjective, and viewers differ in their perception of 
what amount of biological growth is considered "patina" before being considered 
objectionable. 

3.4.3 Other Environmental Issues 

Two additional issues, traffic vibration and the impact of tourism could be considered 
in the larger environmental context. They could also be considered people issues. 
Most studies show that vibration stress is not sufficient to cause damage to a structure 
when considered alone, and in general does not represent an immediate hazard to 
structures." Vibration is most damaging on small elements, particularly those furthest 
from a restraining stmctural member. Attached decorative elements meet these 
criteria, as does an outer layer of stucco. Vibrations of small amplitude, repeated in 
many cycles over time, can weaken the adhesion between materials and can contribute 
to the eventual detachment of the fiirthest elements. Vibration can also exacerbate 
problems caused initially by other causes. Cracks may have been formed through 
shear or tensile stress caused initially by a material's response to moisture. Vibration 



Kumar, p. 50; Handisyde. 33; N. Augenti and P. Clemente. "Strength Reduction in Masonrv due to 
Dynamic Uads." Proc. lABSE Symposium Extending the Lifespan of Structures, San Francisco vol 2 
(Zurich: lABSE, 1995). 1375-80; Paolo Clemente and DarioRinaldis. "Protection of a monumental building 
against traffic-induced vibrations." SoU Dynami cs and Earthquake Engineering 17 (1998): 289-2%. 

•56 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 

can then cause a widening of the crack, allowing in more water and debris, expanding 
the impact of the continuing moisture initiated decay mechanism. 

Increasing tourism also threatens St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 . An increase in use can be 
damaging to the physical fabric of the site with additional traffic on the paths, handling 
of tomb elements, uneven physical stress by those standing on the tombs, and litter. 
The garbage, loud tour guides and crowds threaten the park setting and atmosphere for 
quiet reflection and contemplation. Yet, tourism keeps crime and vandalism at the site 
to a minimum; it keeps the site active; it provides a forum that can be used to educate 
the outsider as to the history of a place and a culture; and it brings money into the 
city's economy. 

Since the early years of its existence, outsiders have been drawn to this place of 
mystery, and this magnetism continues today. Tourism is as much a part of the history 
of the cemetery as is the construction of the tombs themselves, for as soon as this place 
was brought to life in physical form, it was borne into the visitor's imagination. 

Though many do not wish to admit it, tourism is one of the principal reasons for which 
an attempt is being made to preserve this site. Outside interest creates local interest, 
which hopefully will induce a greater interest in preservation. Local grant assistance 
and state and federal funding for conservation eflForts only become available to sites 

5 7 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



that can demonstrate consumer interest and outreach programs. When considered in 
this larger context, and when managed correctly, tourism is a valuable tool for the 
conservation of the physical fabric of the tombs, and the preservation of St. Louis 
Cemetery No. 1 as an irreplaceable cultural landscape.^'* 




Fig. 3. 7 St. Louis Cemetery No. 1. March 2001. 



L. Meyer and J. Peters. "Tourism - A Conservation Tool for St. Louis Cemeter\' No 1" unpublished 
paper (May. 2001). 



58 



Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



3.5 Moisture Driven Decay Mechanisms 



In the above discussion of construction, materials and environment, the concepts of 
moisture movement and moisture driven decay mechanisms are often referenced. As 
stated by Trechsel: "It is generally accepted that well in excess of 75% (some estimates 
being over 90%) of all problems with building envelopes are caused to a greater or 
lesser extent by moisture."^^ Given this fact, and the moist climate at St. Louis 
Cemetery No. 1, an understanding of moisture driven decay mechanisms is critical for 
the interpretation of laboratory results. 



Water is delivered to the tombs in St Louis Cemetery 
No. 1 through direct rainfall penetrating a structure, 
through faulty rainwater disposal (as in design 
elements or cracks that direct water to the interior 
structure), through rising damp from ground held 
water, and through condensation and absorption of 
moisture vapor held in the air as humidity, or liquid 
droplets as fog or aerosol. 

Fig. 3.8 Sources of moisture. 




Y 



CONDE 



ISS 



« » « 
« « « 

^^«» DAMP 



ATION 
FOG, 
» AERq^OL 
s * 



'^ Heinz R. Trechsel. ed. Moisture Control in Buildings. ASTM Manual Series MNL 18. (Philadelphia: 
ASTM. 1994). 35. 



59 



Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Connolly lists the following deterioration mechanisms caused by, or exaggerated by. 



inadequate moisture control: 



Table 1 

J. D. Connolly's List of Deterioration Mechanisms 

Caused By Inadequate Moisture Control 



Hydrolysis 


Osmotic pressure 


Alkali-silica reactivity 


Delayed ettringite formation 


Cyclic freeze/thaw degradation 


Micro-organism attack 


Vapor pressure 


Rising damp 


Sah migration/efflorescence 


Corrosion (oxidation 


Hydroscopicity 


Dissolution 


Wetting and drying 


Dehydrohalogenation 


Plasticizer migration 





3.5.1 Porosity and Moi sture Movement 

A review of the porosity of crystalline solids and methods of moisture transport serves 
to illuminate how all these mechanisms can be possible due to water. A material is 
porous when it contains interstitial spaces between micro-units (crystals) that are 
greater than normal atomic dimensions so that foreign molecules, such as water, can 
penetrate them.^^ Deterioration occurs because of either a physical or chemical 
incompatibility between two materials, or between a material and an externally applied 



* J.D. Connolly. "Humidity and Building Materials" Bugs, Mold and Rot II, Proceedings of a 
Workshop on Control of Humidity for Health, Artifacts and Buildings. (Washington. DC: National 
Institute of Building Sciences. 1993). 29-36. 
'^ P. J. Sereda, "The Structure of Porous Building Materials." Canadian Building Digest 127. (July 1970): 3. 



60 



Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO 1 



force. In non-porous materials, such stresses are limited to the external surface. In a 
porous material, the incompatibilities can impact the surface and build up pressure 
within the material by impacting on the interior surfaces of the pores. Whether the 
impact initially comes from a physical or chemical action, the internal action becomes 
mechanical stress causing the small pore structure to move to relieve the stress, 
eventually resulting in a crack. 



Materials seek to relieve stress or 
pressure, on the macro, micro and 
atomic levels. This can be illustrated in 
the movement of water through a porous 
structure. The brick, mortar and stucco 
in this research are all crystalline porous 
materials made up of carbonates, 
silicates, aluminates and/or oxides. All 
of these crystals are oxygen rich and 
carry a negative charge, creating polar 
surfaces. Polar surfaces are considered 
hydrophilic (water loving) as they attract 



// 



Porous Surface 
Hydrophilic, Water Loving 



* * ^ .*.* 






t*4* **A* **Z* 

**1, "#1 "-^ 

Available Water Sources 



H+ 



i1+ H 
><+ H + 



\, 



Hydrogen Bond Attraction 



Fig. 3.9 Attraction of water molecules to 
hydrophilic porous materials. Adapted from 
Torraca. 



'^ Alan Olivier. Dampness in Buildings. T^ ed.. Rev ised bv James Douglas and J. Stewart Stirling 
(London: Blackwell Science, 1997). 9. 



61 



Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



the positively charged hydrogen atoms of the water molecule, creating hydrogen bonds 
between the material and water. Being bound to the water is the more comfortable state 
on the atomic level. This strong attraction to water occurs on the surface of the porous 
material and inside all the surfaces of the pores, creating a powerful pull for water 
molecules in the vicinity to cover up a molecule of material surface. As each molecule 
of water is bound, more follow, since water also is attracted to itself This attraction on 
the molecular level begins to explain the absorption capability of these materials.^^ 

If water is in a liquid state, it first moves through the porous material through capillary 
action, which can also be described by the attraction of water molecules to the 
material's hydrophilic surface. The skin of the water, called the meniscus, is filled 
with water molecules presenting their iT ends to the polar substrate. The smaller the 
pore, the stronger will be the capillary pull. As an example, water will rise 3 1 mm in a 
1 mm tube vs. 154 mm in a 0,2 mm tube under laboratory conditions. In the small 
pores within a brick, capillary movement can easily overcome the force of gravity. "'^ 

If the attraction of the polar surface to water molecules were the only transport 
mechanism at work, materials would fill and stay perpetually wet. However, the 
reality is a dynamic situation with both material and water always changing to reach 
their most comfortable states. Liquid water can move through a porous material by 



Torraca, 2. 
' Giovanni Massari and Ippolito Massari. Damp Buildings Old and New. (Rome: ICCROM, 1993), 7. 



62 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 



diffusion, moving from the higher water concentration to a lower concentration, a less 
stressful state. Vapor diffusion occurs as water molecules move from air containing 
high levels of water molecules (high vapor pressure or high relative humidity) to a 
region of low water molecules (low vapor pressure, dry air or dry part of the porous 
material), which is how porous materials absorb water molecules from an atmosphere 
of high relative humidity. With heat, water moves from the warmer to the cooler 
region to be at a more stable state. 

Another vapor state movement is called condensation, and is when the surface of a 
material is cooler than the dew point of the surrounding air. The water molecules can 
exist as vapor in the air at the given temperature and relative humidity, but will join 
together and coalesce into a liquid on the cooler surface. The molecules first adsorb 
onto the surface, and then will begin to be absorbed by the material if conditions are 
favorable. Adsorption is the process by which fluid molecules are concentrated on a 
surface through physical and/or chemical forces.^"' 



Trechsel. 36. 



63 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 





MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

Figure 3.10 shows the 4 Levels 
of wetting as described by 
Torraca.'"^ Level I is the dry 
state where the material surface 
and the interior surfaces of the 
pores have O" molecule ends 
waiting for the H^ ends of a 
water molecule. Water will 
distribute through a porous 
material first by capillary 
transfer, then by diffusion. It 



Level I Wetting Level II Wetting 




Level III Wetting Level IV Wetting 



Fig. 3.10 The 4 levels of wetting for a hydrophilic porous 

material. Adapted from Torraca. will fill the small capillaries first, 

as seen in Level II, and will coat the walls of the pores, as seen in Level III, before 

beginning to fill the cavities and larger voids. The term "critical water content" is often 

used to describe the point at which all small capillaries are filled and the pore surfaces 

are covered. At this point, water movement changes fi-om vapor absorption and 

capillary pull or suction to the slower diffiasion of liquid water through the pore spaces 

in the wetting process. 



Torraca, 12. 



64 



Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



When graphed as amount absorbed per unit surface (m) vs. the square root of time, as in 
Figure 3. 1 1, this section of the absorption curve flattens out. The relationship of water 
absorption follows the law m = A Vt, where m is the amount of water absorbed per unit 
surface and A is the slope of the first part of the absorption curve, or the Capillary 
Absorption Coefficient. An analogous formula to describe the penetration depth into a 
material (X) is X = B Vt and X is proportional to the square root of time (t). In this formula, 
B is called the water penetration coefficient and is also the slope of the first part of the curve. 
These coefficients establish the property of the hygroscopic behavior of a material. A 
comparison of the coefficients of each material in a composite structure highlights 
incompatibilities in how fi-ee water progresses, or is inhibited, within the total system. 



0548-01 Brick with Stucco - Capillary Absorption Curve 



1.60 
1.40 
1.20 



a. E 1.00 
5 • 80 



I 6(V.i^ 



040 
0.20 
0.00 



Capillary Absorption Coefficient = .0277 g/cm sec 



400 600 

Square root of Time (sec) 



Fig 3.11 Capillary Absorption Curve for 548-01 Brick with Stucco. 



'°^ B.R Vos, "Water Absorption and Drying of Materials" In The Consen'otion of Stone I, Proceedings of 
the International Symposium. Bologna, 19-21 June 1975. R. Rossi-Manaresi. ed.. (Bologna: Centro per la 
conservazione delle sculture all'aperto 1976), 684. The water penetration coefficient and rising damp is 
fiirther discussed in B. H. Vos. "Moisture in Monuments," Application of Science in Examination of Works of 
Art. William J. Young, ed. (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts. 1970): 147-153. 



65 



Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



3.5.2 The Evaporative Drying Process 

Moisture can enter a porous solid in both the vapor and Hquid stage, but primarily 
leaves only through evaporation in the vapor stage. Here again, the drive to move to a 
more comfortable state has to exist for the water to move. When a wet surface is 
exposed to dry air, water leaves to move to a state of low water molecules and de- 
sorption or drying begins to occur. Since only a small portion of the water covered 
surfaces in a porous material are actually exposed to the dry air, this process can be 
much slower than the wetting process. Evaporation works best when the air is 
significantly less than 100% RH. In the tiny micro-environment of a wet pore, the 
environment stays at the 100% RH state and there is no internal drive to move the water. 
The point where drying by evaporation slows down is called the "critical water content" or 
bending point. RILEM calls it the "Kjiickpoint."""* At this level, diffusion has stopped 
and the material's capillary conduction properties take over, as the small pores hold 
onto water molecules based on the oxygen to hydrogen attraction, making it difficult to 
fully dry the material. '°^ 



RILEM Test No II. 5 Evaporation Curve. This is the same state seen in wetting when just the pore 
surfaces are covered in water. See Level HI in both the wetting and drying sketches. 
"'^ Massari and Massari. 26-30. 



66 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



Level II Drying 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

Torraca used the same 4 level 
diagram to describe the drying 
process, adapted here in Figure 
3. 12 to show the differences in 
the direction of moisture 
movement. The dry air has 
caused the surface held water 
to evaporate in Level IV, and 
this evaporation continues as 
water in the liquid state moves 
to the surface and molecules 
near the surface evaporate. 




Level I Drying 



Fig. 3.12 The 4 levels of drying for a hydrophilic porous 
material. Adapted from Torraca. 



However, once the open spaces empty of liquid water, the process has very little 
initiative to move beyond Level IE, or the point of critical moisture content. 

When the drying rate curve of relative moisture lost per time (AY/At) is plotted against 
moisture content (Tg/cm^), this change in drying rate can be seen. To fully dry out the 
material, more energy, such as heat, wind and/or a lot of time will often need to be applied 
externally to drive the water out through evaporation. When comparing materials, the 



67 



Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

lower this number is, the longer is the period where the diffusion process is still 
occurring and the easier it is to dry the material. ^^^ 



02-01 Tan-Gray Combo, Drying Rate 
Amount of Moisture Lost per Unit Time vs. Moisture Content 



0.400 
0.350 
300 
0.250 
0.200 
0.150 
0.100 
0.050 
0.000 



_ Critical moisture content ^c 



k. 



^pmhhI 



0.030 0.020 

Moisture Content (T g/cm ^) 



Fig. 3. 13 Drying rate curve shows critical moisture content point 

Different materials will all have similarly shaped multi-stage absorption and drying 
curves, but will differ in rates and intensities of moisture movement and phase change 
depending on specific properties, such as porosity and chemical composition. The 
graphing of these moisture relationships helps to identify how materials will interact 
together when joined by an adhesive bond, and whether their combination will assist or 
restrict water movement. 



Vos, "Water Absorption and Dr>ing of Materials," 690. 



68 



Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

Depraetere and Hens described the interface between dissimilar materials as one of 
three types. A hydraulic contact exists where the pores match up and there is a 
continuity of capillary pressure and moisture flow across the interface. This situation 
can exist with a replacement stucco which has been very closely matched to an original 
layer in-situ. For many interfaces, there is actually air space along the bond, leading to 
a discontinuity in moisture movement. In the natural contact, there is good physical 
contact and adhesion, but the pores are different in size, or miss each other, also 
causing discontinuities in flow. In most cases of muhiple stucco layers, they bond to 
brick and mortar, or contain micro-cracks between the layers and there will be a 
combination of air space and natural contact interfaces. '°' 

The tombs at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 have ready access to moisture from falling and 
wind-driven rain, leaks from existing micro and macro-cracks, rising damp from the 
ground moisture and condensation and absorption from the moist air. The above 
discussion describes the various mechanisms that allow the moisture to move through the 
materials. Given the moisture availability and its movement, deterioration actually occurs 
through chemical and physical means, often by both processes occurring together. 



'*" W.J. Carmeliet Depraetere and H. Hens. "Moisture Transfer at Interfaces of Porous Materials: 
Measurements and Simulations." International RILEAf Workshop on Historic Mortars: Characteristics 
and Tests, Paisley. Scotland ]2"'-14'^May 1999. (Cachan. France: RILEM Publications, 2000). 256. 

69 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



3.5.3 Chemical Actions 

Moisture is required for any of the chemical actions that cause deterioration in building 
materials. '"^ Moisture carries existing salts into solution, and enables many reactions 
such as the formation of expansive gypsum or ettringite. Moisture moves sahs in 
solution through the porous structure. When the water de-sorbs by evaporation, the 
sahs remain in the pore and re-crystallize, usually in a larger, non-elastic form and the 
physical damage process begins. The small pore moves to relieve the stress of the 
large salt crystals, and 

.™p^ .,~<™», Lll-Wet LIV-Dry 

small micro-cracks occur. 
Micro-cracks, with their 
very fine diameters, have 
strong capillary suction, 
pulling in more sah-laden 
water the next time it 
becomes available, and 
the process continues 
with each re- 
crystallization of new sah 

Fig. 3.14 The salt decay mechanism is a progressive mechanism, 
lOrcmg the cracks to grow causing greater decay the more cycles the material experiences. 




Water molecules 

eater pores carrying 

salts in solution. 

As the water 

evaporates, salt goes 

out of solution. 

Hard, sharp 

salt crystals form. 



• Crystals shear off '/^T^,^ 

• sections of porous ^S^ y// 
matrix. Micro-cracks 'V- ./^ T, \ 

form as pores 
move to relieve stress 



Llll-Dry Lll-Dry 




'"^ Oliver. 9. 



70 



Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

and more small cracks to form. The repeated cycling between wet to dry is much more 
damaging than if the material stayed perpetually wet with the salt remaining in solution. 

The salts are generally more hygroscopic than the porous building material, and will 
raise the absorptive property, pulling in more sah-laden water to continue the cycle. At 
the interface between materials, as in the bond between stucco and brick, this damage 
process eventually breaks the adhesive bond and delamination can occur. 

If the adhesive bond between 
materials, such as cement stucco and 
brick, is too strong, the stress will be 
relieved by a rupture in the weakest 
material, such as the resuh seen 
when the cement stucco pulls off a 

layer of the soft brick. pjg j 75 Brick fractured by cement stucco. This isV 

sample from Tomb #275 where a new layer of cement 
stucco had been applied directly to the brick in locations 
where the old stucco had delaminated. 

Rain water is slightly acidic because of the dissolved carbon dioxide fi-om the air. This 
weak carbonic acid reacts with the carbonates of calcium and magnesium, found in 
mortar, stucco, limestone and marble to form bicarbonates, which are slightly soluble 
in water and will slowly dissolve. '"^ 




' Torraca, 38. 



71 



Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 

CO2 + H2O ^ H2CO3 

2 H2CO3 + CaCl2 -> Ca(HC03)2 + 2HC1 
(one of the many possibilities) 

If pH is higher, the carbonic acid converts to water and gives off CO2, which also 
causes stress inside a small pore. 

Water also enables the reactions that convert sulfur dioxide found in pollution into 
sulfuric acid, and oxides of nitrogen and other pollutants into nitric, hydrochloric and 
additional other acids. These strong acids deteriorate both carbonates and silicates. 

SO2 + H2O + 02^ H2SO4 

Here again, the wet / dry cycle accelerates the damaging effects. When wet, a structure 
can be coated in a thin film of water filled with salts and pollutant, giving the porous 
material the time to absorb the damaging materials. As the material dries and the water 
is desorbed, the salts and pollutants remain behind to initiate damage. 

3.5.4 Physical Movement 

As chemical deterioration occurs, there are physical stresses set up within the pores. 
These physical stresses eventually lead to cracks and broken bond adhesion, as the 
materials move to relieve the stress. In addition to the foregoing reasons for 
movement, displacement also can be due to load-bearing non-uniformities in the soil. 
The composition of soil, in terms of gravel, sand or clay, also affects its absorption of 

72 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

water. Clay is the most absorbent. Clay is composed of highly absorbent particles 
arranged in stacks of hundreds of crystalline plates that slip and slide over each other 
when saturated with water. Good building design requires footings sunk beneath such a 
layer, but at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1, most of the tombs rest on a layer of black clay. 
Tomb settlement is evident where heavier tomb mass has sunk eccentrically relative to 
threshold. Differential movement in the soil can create shear stress in the tomb structure, 
with the weakest bonds cracking first to relieve such stress. Cracking will occur first in the 
stucco layer. Where it is closely bonded to the main structure, the rigidity of the finish will 
determine whether and how much cracking will result. "'^ 

Another moisture related physical movement is caused by the growth of biological 
organisms and higher level flora as discussed in Section 3.4. This is a very prevalent 
problem at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1, as small cracks formed by the above processes 
soon become breeding grounds for the aggressive growth of algae and mosses. 
Cracked roofs also present ready germination sites that collect dirt and seeds deposited 
by birds, insects and the wind. The growing plants serve to further humidify the micro- 
environment of the material's surface, keeping the materials damp and inhibiting the 
de-sorption process. 



' Handisyde. 36. 



73 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

Inorganic materials are rarely subject to UV degradation from exposure to strong 

sunlight. However, movement can occur due to thermal differences by conduction due 

to the radiant heat from the sun, or convection due to the temperature of the 

surrounding air. The amount of differential thermal expansion varies widely based on 

the porosity, formation processes and chemical composition of a material. As an 

example, Torraca listed the following common material differences:'" 

Approximate unrestrained movement for 30°C 
change in temperature for materials 1 meter in length 

Marble 0.15 mm 

Cement Concrete 0.3 to 0.4 mm 

Lime- sand mortar 0.3 to 0.4 mm 

Common Brick 0. 1 5 to 0.2 mm 



Thermal Expansion Coefficients, Unit m/m °C 

Concrete 10x10"^ 

Concrete with exp. Clay 7 to 9 x 10 "^ 

Cement mortar 10 to 1 1 x 10 

Lime mortar 8 to 10x10"^ 

Brick 5x10"^ 



Finally, the few remaining risks to the historic resources at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 
are generally man-driven, rather than moisture driven. These include neglected 
maintenance, physical impacts through accident or vandalism, theft, mass tourism, 
cemetery management decisions, local politics and uninformed conservation efforts. "^ 



"'Torraca 29. 37. 

"" D. CamuflFo. "Perspectives on Risks to Architectural Heritage," Sax'ing Our Architectural Heritage: 
The Consen'ation of Historic Stone Structures, Report of the Dahlem Workshop, Berlin. March 3-8, 
1996 N.S. Baer and R. Snethlage. eds. (New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.. 1997). 76. 80-81. 

74 Tomb Decay Mechanisms 



4.0 CURRENT CONDITIONS 

4.1 Analysis of Current Condition Survey Data 

Based on the Survey made in March, 2001, and field-checked by the Phase 2 team in 
October, 2001, site conditions were mapped. A series of condition maps are included 
in Appendix A. Based on the results of the Survey, decay mechanisms involving the 
brick, mortar and stucco were identified for this research. 




St. Louis 1 Cemetery 
New Orleans, LA 

Condition 
Stucco 

The overall physical 
state of the stucco skin 
Very Poor - Significant or 
total deterioration 
Poor - 9gnrficant areas of 
stucco failure and/or 
stucco roof surface is breached 
Moderate - Stable stucco 
condition. Progressive loss 
of features and finishes 
Good- Stable stucco 
condition. Decorative features 
largely intact May be cracks, 
but patchable byroutrie 



I^B Very Poor 
I I Poor 
j I Moderate 
I I Good 
I 1 N/A 

Dead Spsoe: 

Defining the New Oiieans 

Creote Cemetenr 

Graduate Schcnl of Rne Arts 

Unf»er5<y of F^rmsrlvaniB 

Basemop, March 2X2 



Fig, 4. 1 An example of the condition mapping through GIS. See Appendix Bfor more maps. 



75 



Current Conditions 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 
4.2 Field Survey Observations 

During the course of the Survey, the Phase 2 field-check, and this research, five trips 
were made to the site in March, September, October, and November, 200 1 , and in 
March 2002. During the March, 2001, visit, this research had not been contemplated 
and observations were primarily concentrated on the specific site Purvey, impacts of 
tourism and site specific details required for the development of the site survey 
database design and implementation.^'^ The overall personal impression was one of 
delight and appreciation for a landscape of picturesque decay, then dismay at the 
discordant pockets of bright white rebuilt tombs and the harsh modern surface 
materials surrounding so many important historical resources. 

During later visits, tomb condition and deterioration results were observed more 
closely. For a site that has stood for over two centuries, with maintenance mostly 
neglected during the twentieth century, the tombs have performed well. The signs of 
deterioration seen in the tombs were not unique, or unexpected. All materials 
deteriorate. "The combination of building material properties and environmental 
conditions create the requisite components that perpetuate materials deterioration, 
hence building failure. . . . Deterioration is not an exception, nor is it synonymous with 



"^ Database designed and programmed for the Studio by J.Peters. "Tourism - A Conservation Tool 
for St. Louis Cemetery No. 1" unpublished paper co-authored by L. Meyer and J. Peters. 

76 Current Conditions 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



[the designer or builder's] failure.""'* Building structures, whether residential, 
commercial, or masonry aboveground tombs, will not last forever, and all soon show 
similar signs of decay unless repainted periodically, maintained, and necessary repairs 
made with some regularity. 

The first sign of decay noticed, as one surveyed the site, was the poor condition of the 
surface finishes. Many of the surfaces were dirty and heavily covered with biological 
growth. The historic lime washes have partially worn away with time and had not been 
reapplied recently. In some cases, modem latex paints have been applied over irregular 
stucco surfaces containing old paint and lime wash residue, with lack of adhesion 
evident. Good adhesion occurs either because of mechanical locking of a film into 
another material, by a strong attraction between the molecules of the two materials, or 



Good Adhesion Failed Adhesion 

Mechanical Lock & Key _ Grease, Bio-Growth 

—I ♦ t 

H+^TChemical Attraction __Grease, Incompatible 

I Surface FinishesI 



Fig. 4.2 Adhesion mechanisms include both physical and chemical forces. 



"•Harris. 12-14. 



77 Current Conditions 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



by both mechanisms working 
together. They both depend on 
surfaces free of grease, clean, 
and all powdery material and old 
loosely adherent materials 
removed so that no planes of 
weakness are established as the 
new bonding takes place. "^ 




Fig. 4.3 An example of cracked and peeling modern finish.. 



Based on the Survey, of the 617 tombs (not including markers, ruins, or empty spaces), 
the surface finish on 304 tombs, or 49% were judged to be in the poorest condition 
with a rating of either a "0" or "i" ''^ The survey rated 414 tombs, 67%, as a "0" or 
"1" for material integrity of the surface finish."' The loss of the surface finish is a 
structure's loss of the first line of defense against the elements and, perhaps more 
important, is visually very distracting. An otherwise "good" condition tomb would be 
viewed poorly by most viewers because of this loss of the least expensive, and easiest 
to fix, part of the building structure system. 



"Handisyde 41-42. 

"^ Based on the Sun'ey Manual, a surface finish condition of "0" is defined as "Significant or Total 
Deterioration: Large-scale surface finish loss and/or failure, exposing stucco or stone beneath." A 
surface finish condition of "T" is defined as "Poor Condition: Significant areas of finish failure/loss. 
Unsightly peeling and/or flaking of finish. " 

" Based on the Sun'ey Manual . a "0" material integrit>' is defined as "Total Loss of Integrit> : 25% or 
less of original materials remain or the overwhelming presence of inappropriate replacement materials 
and/or alterations" and a "1" is defined as "Low Integrity': 26%-50% of original materials remain or the 
significant presence of inappropriate replacement materials and/or alterations." 



78 



Current Conditions 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

The stucco, where visible through missing or failing surface finishes, was generally dry 
and did not show moisture or salt marks that might be expected from an environment 
where rising damp is known to be active. However, as Massari and Massari have 
pointed out, one has to be careful with dampness evaluations and the answer is not 
always the intuitive one. Efflorescence, an impressive symptom of rising damp, is 
not always present, but the lack of this symptom does not mean that the structure 
does not have a serious rising damp problem. It may mean only that there are not 
significant soluble sahs in the water source. ^^* 

Traces of biological growth covered many tombs and were most prevalent on the 
bottom third of the tombs and under cornices and other dark areas kept shaded and 
poorly ventilated. During the Survey, 54% of the tombs were marked as showing bio- 
growth evidence. While the stucco may not have appeared to be damp or showing 
signs of sah lines, the prevalence of bio-growth and the condition of lost stucco on the 
lower courses still indicated the presence of moisture problems. 

The Survey rated only 90 tombs as having a stucco condition as "0" or "1" and only 
1 8 1 tombs were judged to have poor or total loss of material integrity. ' '^ These 
condition definitions were heavily influenced by the amount of stucco actually lost and 



"^ Massari and Massari. 2-3. 

'" Based on the Survey Manual a "0" stucco condition is defined as "Significant Deterioration,: Large-scale 
stucco loss and/or failure, exposing bride or masonn core." And a T" condition is "Poor Condition: Significant 
areas of stucco failure/loss and/or stucco roof surface is breached or compromised b\ loss and craddng." 

79 Current Conditions 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



did not well capture the different deterioration mechanisms seen throughout the site. The 
Survey did not highly penalize tomb condition on the basis of stucco condition, since 
stucco was viewed as a sacrificial layer that could be repaired easily or even replaced in a 
restoration project. 



Delamination of the stucco layer was a prevalent problem not documented by the 
Survey. Delamination occurred both between stucco layers and between the stucco and 
the brick. From afar, the layers often appeared attached, but upon closer inspection, 

and by rapping the layer lightly, 
separation was often quite evident. 
Most of the tombs that showed this 
condition also had an obvious later 
application of stucco onto an original or 
earlier surface, and many of the later 
stucco layers were of modem cement. 
The delamination could have occurred 
because the layer never adhered well to 
the original stucco, or because the 
interface between stucco layers or to the 
brick surface broke over time, due to 
Fig. 4.4 Delamination and deformation of Stucco differences between two incompatible 




80 



Current Conditions 



MODELISG OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOLIS CEMETERY \0. 1 

layers ot materials Once ddaminated. the outer layer lost hs structural support Gra\Tt\- and 
the weight of absorbed moisture caused the layer to move ourw-ard, expanding into a 
bowed condition. Eventually a crack or gap developed, allowing in rainwater, debris 
and bio-growth. 

Where tc«nbs had been patdied with cement, the patch edges were often deteri(xatir^ 
particulariy at the interfece of historic material aixi cement patch. On c«tain tombs, 
covered by an obvious layer of modem cement the cement layer had pulled away a 
layer of brick where the cemem \H"as applied directly to the soft brick. \S"here%"er 
original stucco delaminated fi^om brick, the break was at the stucco to brick interface or 
within the stucco layer itself. 

Cracking was a condition that w^as surveyed for both the primar\- structure and roof 
although, cracks were more appropriately defined as a stucco condition issue. Cracks 
in the primar\- structure were docimiented for 368 tombs (60** o), and in the roof for 333 
tombs (54° o). There were different panems of cracks seen at the site based on the 
deterioration mechanisms at work. Many of the older tombs with unahered stucco 
layers had cracks that lined the joints in the brick coursing. In the most serious cases, the 
brick w^s actually telescoped out fiom the tomb wall with the stucco oadced at the brick's 
edges, but adhered to the brick face VSTiae these aacks had fiilly developed, the interior 
naortar was consistently disintegrated. 

SI Current CoiiJinofis 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Fig. 4.5 Telescoping brick wall. 



Fig. 4. 6 Open mortar joints and evidence 
ofwetness 



A more serious crack 
situation was seen in 
many of the original 
material tombs that were 
later encased in cement. 
In these tombs, the high 
strength of the outer 
cement stucco held the 
new casing together in 




Fig. 4. 7 Tomb n51H Sodiedad Cervantes de B.M. 
Restored in new cement. 



82 



Current Conditions 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



compression for a certain time period as the soft permeable inner materials continued 
to shift according to moisture and temperature driven decay mechanisms. When the 
pressure became too great, the cement casing fractured, and caused large structural cracks 
in the structure, as the cement on each side of the crack held on tightly to the soft inner 
materials and tore them apart as the crack developed. These cracks could happen 
suddenly. The damage was traumatic to the tomb and could not be easily repaired. 




Water entry through roof cracks, 
or rising damp. Uneven moisture 

distribution and progressive 
mortar loss causes extensive brick 

movement Walls become 

unstable. Telescope at weak point 

of stucco/mortar joint 




Cemfent layer of stucco, 

Strengtn restricts initial interior 

material movements until stress 

builds to release point of a 

maior structural crack. 



Fig. 4.8 A comparison of damage results seen in walls. Telescoping vs. structural cracking. 
The third type of cracking seen at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 was map cracking. These 
cracks were evident as a fine network of cracks that do not progress through the stucco 
layers. One type of map cracking was most often seen in tombs that have a layer of 



83 



Current Cotiditions 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



fmmm'f^mmmmmili^i^'fmmmmfmmm 




hard red or gray lime based 
surface finish and is a surface 
finish to stucco interface 
condition that bears further 
investigation. 



A very different type of map 
cracking was seen in the gray 
Fig. 4. 9 Salt induced map cracking on cement layer. cement or cement encased 

tombs, such as the one seen here in Figure 4.9. These cracks started out as fine map 
cracks, then progressed to larger cracks that could destroy the cement stucco layer. 
Riccardi, et.al. used optical microscopy to illustrate the expansive needle-like prismatic 
hexagonal crystals of ettringite.'^° Collepardi has used thermal analysis techniques with 
SEM imagery to explain the deterioration of restoration cement by the formation of 
thaumasite and ettringite upon exposure of the cured cement to environmental pollutants. 
His work helped explain why ettringite formation leads to cracking, spalling, and loss of 



strength and adhesion in concrete stucco. 



- M.P. Riccardi et. al.. "Thermal, Microscopic and X-Ray Diffraction Studies on Some Ancient 
Mortars," Thermochimica Acta 1,11 (\ 998): 207-2 1 4, 

'"' Mario Collepardi. "Thaumasite Formation and Deterioration in Historic Buildings," Cement and 
Concrete Composites 2\ (1999): 147-154. 



84 



Current Conditions 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



A number of tombs showed a blistering effect in the stucco, often between layers. This 
may be due to the presence of unslaked CaO which would continue to hydrate upon 
exposure to moisture. 

Generally the failure of multiple stucco layers is not between the layers of original and 
new cement stucco. However, where it occurs, the salt decay mechanism, either by 
cement salts or dissolved calcite drawn to the surface and re-crystallized, is generally 
the cause. 

Three additional problems seen throughout the site are related to design mistakes by 
the early builders. These problems included flush brick joints, overhanging cornices 
and unsupported raised flat roofs. Many of the tombs have stucco layers that could be 
easily pulled away from the brick wall. Over time, the adhesion between the stucco 
and the brick has broken down. Upon close inspection of these samples, it was found 




Fig. 4.10 Stucco applied over flush mortar joint vs. recessed "kev. " 



S5 Current Conditions 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



that the mortar joints between the bricks were finished flush with the brick edge, and 

the stucco, when apphed, had no "key" to lock it in place. Had the joints been 

recessed, the stucco key would have 

added additional strength to the 

brick/stucco bond and the adhesion 

properties would have been much 

longer lasting, even with the moisture 

driven decay mechanisms that worked 

to break down the bond. 

Many tombs, in otherwise good 

condition, have cornices with broken 

comers and exposed brick. Once this 

vulnerable roof area is exposed, falling 

rain, dirt, seeds, and bird droppings all 

can initiate mechanisms that lead to progressive failure of the roof system. As fashions 

dictated, cornice profiles were extruded more over the tomb. In most cases, the cornices 

were formed entirely of additional stucco material without extra brick or slate support. 

After years of gravity pulling moisture laden stucco in a downward direction, the shear 

stress flanking the comers caused the break pattem seen. 




Fig. 4.11 Cornice failure. 



86 



Current Conditions 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Some of the raised flat roofs, added 
most likely as a later addition to 
"update" the tomb, have no support, 
beyond the stepped bricks along their 
edges and a spine down the middle. 
This large expanse of roof, only partially 

supported, is under tensile, instead of Fig- -^l^ Failed jlal ronJOu a platform tomb. 

compressive stress, and neither brick nor stucco has good tensile strength. The stucco 
cracks, allowing in moisture. Brick displacement from gravity causes more cracking and 
water entry. Where a stone slab has been added to support the roof) as was often used to 
support each new tier, the roof remained sound with much less evidence of cracking. 



If a tomb had no support under the flat roof, one would conclude that the best roof 
would be the lightest one possible. Yet in many cases, roofs have been recovered in 
dense cement. In some cases, very heavy preformed concrete roofs have been placed 
on the tomb, setting up even greater downward pressure on the tomb top and walls, 
adding more stress to the entire system, including the marble tablet in the vault 
opening, and will most likely cause accelerated sinking and eccentric settlement. 
These new "additions" also completely obliterate the historic materials and cornice 
profiles and style evidence. 



87 



Current Conditions 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

There are many conditions of deterioration seen in the marble tablet systems and 
metalwork. As they are not the subject of this research, such materials will not be 
discussed, except where the system impacts the stucco and masonry. The marble 
surrounds on many of the tombs were often sealed to the stucco with incompatible 
mortars or modem adhesives, such as epoxies. When these seals broke, a vertical 
channel for moisture, dirt and 



seeds was created. The 
metalwork connection into the 
side of the tomb is also a weak 
point and many connections 
show cracked stucco around the 
metal. With corrosion 
expanding the metal, the stucco 
to metal seal easily breaks, 
compromising the stucco layer. 



■•": W^ 


1 




,pii 


:" - "^Cji^v_-J5.e 




h. 


^ 


:y 


/^'^ 


. 'm 


r> ^V 


»9i 




K 


fti 


i< 






If 


A. 




«^ * 


Ti/ 


w 


4" 



Fig. 4.13 Tomb nJ4, Cracking at the interface of stucco 
and metal connection. 



Since there are so many tombs at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 with exposed brick, the 
brick condition can be observed quite easily. There are a variety of brick types, colors 
and sizes. Often, multiple brick types and sizes can be found in the same tomb. All 
bricks observed at the site appear to be handmade, even those fi^om the few tombs that 
appear to be of a harder, imported brick. The local river "reds", and the lake "tans" 



Current Conditions 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

were both soft, with the river bricks being the softest. These bricks were not intended 
to be exposed and needed the protective covering of the stucco. When the stucco was 
intact, the bricks beneath showed very Httle deterioration and the mortar in the joints did 
not appear to be damaged to any great extent. However, for those tombs where the brick 
and mortar were exposed, the mortar joints suffered severe loss and the faces and edges 
of the bricks also showed erosion. This was most obvious at the comers of the tombs. 

Once the mortar joints break down, the bricks become loose, and shifting of bricks 
occur easily as moisture moves through the structure, through thermal expansion, or 
from mechanical stresses, such as the addition of a heavy new roof, as mentioned 
above. However, in most cases, the load bearing brick walls are quite resilient. This 
might be due partly to the fact that as the mortar breaks down, another decay 
mechanism takes place as dirt and flora took residence, actually providing needed 
support to the damaged joint. 

Although these exposed brick tombs appear to be in terrible condition, the trained 
conservator can see a relatively standard project. After consulting archival images to 
better inform the work, lost bricks need to be replaced, the roof bricks often need 
resetting, new bedding and pointing mortar are needed throughout and the stucco and 
surface finishes must be repaired or replaced. With these remedies, even the worst 
looking tombs can be restored without significant loss of historic fabric. 

89 Current Conditions 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Fig. 4. 14 
Tomb #35} 
"Before " 



Tomb 4. 15 
Tomb #351 
-After" 



90 



Current Conditions 



5.0 Material Analysis and Characterization 

A testing and analysis program was designed to document and characterize the 
construction materials in the aboveground tombs at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1. The 
field assessment of deterioration patterns had documented that structural integrity of tombs 
was rarely compromised as long as the outer skin of protective stucco was intact. 
Therefore, the test design emphasized stucco and stucco on brick analysis, and samples 
fi-om over 10% of the tomb inventory, well distributed through the site were required. 

Through a review of the literature, many mortar and stucco analysis research studies 
were identified. While the research objectives varied, there was a general consistency 
in methodology. Whether the article was published in conservation journals, journals 
on analytical test equipment or cement chemistry publications, the research work 
started with documentation and visual inspection and proceeded to methods of 
separation, gravimetric analysis, chemical analysis, optical microscopy and physical 
response to moisture. Advanced analytical tools used most often were XRD (powder 
X-Ray diffraction) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). Many of the projects 
published were featured in muUiple journals and the later phase of their work focused 
on TGA-DTA (thermal gravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis) and other 
specialized techniques used to answer their particular research objectives. 



91 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



Site Survey 

~700 Tombs and Ruins 

Conditions Mapped & Analyzed 



I 



I 



// 



89 Tombs, 129 Stucco Layers 
18 Tombs - Brick and Mortar 

Physical Characterization 
Total Immersion, Porosity 



I 



/// 



Selected Samples (per test) 
(~ 30 samples per test) 

Capillary Absorption 

Drying Rates 

WVT 

Density 

Acid Digestion 

Gravimetric 

Salts Presence 

Microscopy 



t^ 



Advanced Analytical 
XRD - 8 stucco layers 
TGA/DTA - 8 stucco layers 
jy SEM - 3 tombs 



Fig. 5. 1 Material analysis 
and characterization plan. 



This research followed a similar testing plan, starting with physical characterization of 
brick, mortar and stucco. As moisture related movement and reactions were 
hypothesized to be the primary factors in deterioration, the results from water 
absorption by total immersion were used with the characteristic of gross sample color 
to separate the large sample set into groups. For a smaller subset of samples, capillary 



92 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 

absorption and drying rates were studied and gravimetric analysis and micro-structure 
were used for documentation. Specific stucco binder components were confirmed with 
SEM, XRD and TGA/DTA. 

5.1 Sampling Strategies 

Since St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 is still an active burial site and the tombs are owned by 
families, the sampling program was limited to tombs that were in very advanced states 
of deterioration. During sampling visits to the site, a total of 89 tombs were sampled 
for 129 stucco layers, and 18 tombs were also sampled for brick and mortar. No tombs 
were damaged in retrieving these samples. In each case, the stucco was already 
delaminating fi-om the brickwork, or was attached to brickwork that was loose in a 
badly deteriorated tomb. The bricks were exposed and loose. Even with this limitation 
on sampling, a good distribution of the site, tomb type and stucco and brick type was 
achieved. Documentation and photographs of the sample locations contributed to the 
final analysis of decay mechanisms. GIS maps indicating those tombs sampled and 
their conditions can be viewed in Appendix A. 



93 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 

5.1.1 Brick 

Using the Survey completed in March, 2001, and field checked in October, 2001, 
tombs that had a primary structure condition of "0" (Significant or Total Deterioration) 
or "1" (Poor Condition) were inspected as candidates for brick sampling. Most of the 
poorest condition tombs with available loose bricks were platform, parapet and step 
tombs and a majority of the samples came fi-om those tomb types, with the exception of 
the brick samples fi-om the 1200 wall vault east and middle sections. Where there was 
more than one type of brick evident in a tomb, each was sampled to analyze the 
differences. 

Although the original plan was to take core samples fi-om several tombs, it was 
decided, during the sampling trip, that coring for samples could be too damaging to the 
tombs. In a fiiture research project, coring can be attempted when a tomb is selected 
for an active restoration project. At that time, it would also be instructive to install 
environmental probes within the tomb and within the structural system components, to 
monitor temperature and moisture over time. 

To obtain an estimate of the moisture vapor transmission of the tomb wall system, 
bricks of several tombs were chosen where the complete system of brick, stucco layers 
and surface finish were intact. During the Survey in March, 2001, and again in this 

94 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

research, attempts were made to retrieve bricks from the site and transport them to the 
lab fully sealed so that valid measurements could be made of the moisture content in- 
situ. However, the packaging material did not hold up through transport and several 
bricks arrived broken and the sealed bags were punctured. In the future, in-situ 
moisture content measurement will be best achieved by using a battery operated 
balance on site. 

5.1.2 Stucco / Surface Finish Assembly 

The Survey was also used to identify dated tombs where the stucco condition was "0" 
(significant or total deterioration) or "1" (poor condition). During the sampling trips, 
additional tombs were sampled due to unique conditions, color or where spots of 
stucco deterioration made the taking of a sample possible on a tomb where the stucco 
condition had been rated higher than a " 1". For most tombs, less than 50 grams were 
sampled. For those tombs identified for gravimetric analysis and water vapor 
transmission (WVT) testing, approximately 150 gram samples were taken so that a full 
5.3 mm disc could be prepared for the WVT test. Where there were muhiple layers of 
stucco, as in an original stucco layer covered by a later cement layer, samples of both 
layers were taken. 



95 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

5.1.3 Mortar 

In each tomb where brick samples were taken, mortar samples were also taken. An 
attempt was made to retrieve unexposed interior samples that had not broken down due 
to weathering, water absorption and/or biological growth. 

5.2 Laboratory Analysis 

5.2.1 Visual Inspection and Physical Characterization 

Visual inspection and physical characterization are the most basic of the analytical 
techniques. It is important to capture contextual information about the sample, such as 
where it was located on the structure, the condition of the structure or region from 
which the sample was taken, damage levels and locations (delamination, 
disaggregation, cracking, etc.) general surface appearance, and contamination 
information. For this research, a report of the target tombs was created from the 
database to use in the field during sample collection to collect information quickly and 
accurately. Comments and planned tests were marked and sample locations could often 
be indicated on the photograph. (See Appendbc B - Sampling Record for an example of 
the field comments.) 

96 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

After collection, stucco samples were brushed clean with a wire brush and all loose 
surface finish removed. Where possible, any remaining surface finish was removed 
with a dental pick, scalpel and/or coarse grit sandpaper. Where samples contained 
more than one layer of stucco, all attempts were made to separate the layers and test 
each separately for moisture response, for comparison to the intact multi-layer system. 
Samples were coded as to the layer color(s) and whether surface finish was still a part of 
the sample. Small samples were taken of selected stucco layers and surface finishes for 
later microscopy work. 

Based on gross color and texture, the samples were subjectively typed into 6 groups: 

1 . White Group - appeared to be the oldest, mostly crushed shell based lime 

2. Tan Group - light sandy color, very porous 

3 . Dark Tan Group - darker, caramel type tan, denser 

4. Gray Group - more recent layers of cement based stucco 

5. Combination Tan/Gray Group - muhiple layers 

6. Combination Dark Tan/Gray Group - multiple layers 

A later subset of White Gray Group was designated, as this type of cement layer 
seemed to have very different properties fi"om the Gray Group. The broken interior of 
each sample was fiirther characterized by Munsell Soil Charts (ASTM Dl 535-97), and 
aggregate shape and size were characterized. For those samples that were to be 
analyzed by acid digestion and gravimetrically, the surface texture was evaluated 

97 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



further by comparison to commercial sandpaper grit sizes and sample hardness was 
given a Mohs hardness scale number by using a fingernail, a scalpel and a glass slide. 
The Mohs hardness scale orders 10 common minerals by hardness, numbered 1 to 10. 
One's fingernail has a hardness of about 2.5, between the hardness of gypsum and 
calcite; a jackknife blade is estimated at 5.5, between apatite and feldspar; and a plate 
glass is about 6, or the hardness of feldspar. A to 3 scale was used to rate grinding 
difficulty and resistance to break, to further characterize hardness. See Appendix C - 
Experimental Data for a summary of the stucco characterization. 

The bedding mortar samples were brushed lightly to remove loose fi-agments and 
evidence of biological growth. Samples were color typed with the Munsell Soil Charts 
(ASTM D 153 5-97), and assessed for hardness using the to 3 scale of grinding 
difficuhy and resistance to break, as described above. See Appendix C - Experimental 
Data for a summary of the mortar characterization. 

The brick samples were scrubbed lightly to clean off dirt and biological growth, then 
weighed and measured in the length, depth and height dimensions. An additional 41 
measurements were made on bricks still intact in tombs during the March, 2002, field 
trip to St. Louis Cemetery No. 1, and were added to the analysis of brick sizes. 



9S Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



Using the reference by 
Gurcke, Bricks and 
Brickmaking: A 
Handbook for Historical 
Archaeology, the 
sampled bricks were 
characterized by color 
and texture, the marks on 
the struck face, the evidence of lips formed on the edges, and any additional marks 
showing that the bricks were sand or water struck. '^^ Each brick was marked for 
cutting and cut with a water cooled Plasplug Diamond Wheel Tile Cutter into 6 or 
more pieces (-2.5" x 3.5" x 1.5") for further tests. 




Fig. 5.2 A handmade brick evidenced by the Up formed when brick 
was removed from its mold before being fully dry. 




the "strike " across the wet clay. The strike 
was usually a straight edge of wood 



" Karl Gurcke. Bricks and Brickmaking: A Handbook for Historical Archaeology. (Moscow. ID: 
University of Idaho Press. 1987). 



99 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



• N 


\ 


^ 


) 


I 






•s^iitsm 


,.-J 





Fig. 5.5 Examples of brick samples. The top six samples are River 
brick which tend to be red to reddish orange. The bottom six samples 
are Lake brick which are tan to pink and usually have spots of burnt 
impurities 



100 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

5.2.2 Moisture Absorption by Total Immersion 

Testing methodology for moisture absorption 
by total immersion was adapted from several 
sources. For the stucco samples, a target 
size of 3.5 cm x 3.5 cm and desired weight of 
20 grams was selected. Due to the small 
quantity of many of the samples, weights 
ranged from a low of 3.9 g to a high of 30.5 g. 
The average dry weight was 12.7 g. Each 
sample of stucco was placed in an individually 
weighed aluminum pan and 1 5 small sample 
pans were placed in a large disposable 
aluminum tray. The 1 19 samples were divided into 8 trays of 13-16 samples each, so 
that each test series allowed enough time for all samples to be weighed before the next 
timed weighing cycle was scheduled. Each tray of samples was air-dried at 68-70° F 
and 30-35% RH. The samples were then dried for 12 or more hours at 83 °C, until 
sample weights between weighings were constant within ±0. 1%. 




Fig. 5. 6 Samples of stucco during total 
immersion test. 



'"^ ASTM C97-83 Standard Test Methods for Absorption and Bulk-Specific Gravit\' of Dimension Stone; 
Jeanne Marie Teutonico. "Water Absorption by Total Immersioa" A Lahoraton- Manual for Architectural 
Conservators, (Rome: ICCROM. 1988), 35. NORMAL 7/81. Draft Translation by E. Charola; Ernesto 
Borrelli. Porosity: .4RC Laboratory Handbook Volume 2/99. (Rome: ICCROM. 1999). 10. 



lOJ 



Afialysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

The dry weight, Mo, of each sample was recorded and distilled water was added to fill 
each pan, totally submerging the stucco sample. The samples were removed fi^om the 
water, blotted dry and weighed on an Ohaus Scout 11 scale with ± 0. 1 g error at given 
intervals until the difference between two successive weighings at a 24 hour interval 
was less than 1% of the dry weight, and less than 0. 1% of the total moisture absorption. 
At the end of the immersion time, the final saturated weight, Msat, was recorded. The 
percent of moisture absorbed by total immersion at atmospheric pressure, also called 
the Imbibition Capacity, was calculated: 

IC = (MsAT-Mo)/Mox 100 
The mass of the pores, Mp, was calculated: 

Mp = Msat - Mo 
Since the density of water is 1 g/cm^ at 24 °C, the mass of the pores, MpCan be 
considered to be the open pore volume, Vp. Each sample was then placed in a small 
beaker filled with 60 ml of distilled water. The amount of water displaced, or the apparent 
volume Va, was used to estimate the percent open porosity of each stucco sample. 
% Open Porosity = % Voids = VpA'a x 100 

To obtain an estimate of the water absorption coefficient, or the rate at which the 
samples would have absorbed through capillary action, the slope of the initial section 
of the absorption curve was calculated. 

102 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

The samples were then dried at 83°C until they reached constant weight and re- 
weighed. The first 106 samples were then tested for surface absorption by dropping 1 
ml drop of de-ionized water onto the surface and measuring the time required for the 
drop to be fully absorbed. The results were very erratic, depending on where the drop 
was placed on the irregular stucco surfaces, and were not used for analysis. 

The wet and dry condition of each sample was photographed and any discoloration of 
water or disaggregation of sample was recorded. The % Moisture Absorption, % 
Porosity, and initial slope resuhs for all samples and sample comments are presented in 
Appendix C - Experimental Data. 



MsAT by Stucco Group - Total Immersion 
Data Calculated from Samples without SF 



fiBS 



to 



DWhite nTan aDarh Tan aTan/Gray nGray sDkTan/Gr 



Porosity by Stucco Group 
Estimated by Water Displacement Method 




While Tan Dar1< Tan Tan/Gray Gray DkTan/Gr 



Fig. 5. 7 Total saturation point average, 
minimum and maximum by group. 



Fig. 5.8 Average open porosity by group. 



This large set of samples included a mixture of single stucco layers, multiple layers and 
samples with surface finish caught between layers. Even with the many sample 
irregularities, the moisture response of the White stucco samples was the greatest at almost 
2 times the response of the least absorbent Gray group. The graphs above show the 



103 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

average percent of moisture 
gained in the fully saturated 
condition of those samples 
without surface finishes. The 
Gray samples averaged a similar 
porosity to the Dark Tan group, 
showing that porosity alone does 
not dictate absorbing capacity. 



Average Initial Slope of Absorption by Stucco Type 
Total Water Immersion Test 



4.0% 
35% 
3 0% 
2.5% 
20% 
1,5% 
10% 
5% 



I 



I 1.39% I 

■ 1 



Tan/Gray 



Gray 



Fig. 5.9 Average initial slope of absorption by group. 



The water absorption by total immersion test provides an indication of the total amount of 
moisture that a material can hold. Figure 5.9 shows the initial slope of the curve of Mt vs. 
time. It clearly shows differences in the initial capillary absorption properties, or the suction 
power, between materials. In the case of the 4 stucco color groups, the differences followed 
the pattern seen in the imbibition capacity results. The White group averaged 2.5 times the 
absorption of the Gray group. 

Most of the mortar samples were less than 20 g, so the largest piece available was 
chosen. In several cases, two small mortar samples were used for the test. The average 
dry weight of the mortar samples tested was 17.6 g. Each sample of mortar was placed 
in an individually weighed aluminum pan and the 15 small sample pans were placed in 



104 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

a large disposable aluminum tray. The tray of samples was air-dried at 68-70°F and 
between 30-35% RH. The samples were then dried for over 12 hours at 83 °C. 

The dry weight of each sample was recorded and distilled water was added to fill each 
pan, totally submerging the sample. The samples were removed fi^om the water, 
blotted dry and weighed on an Ohaus Scout II scale with ± 0. 1 g error at the times used 
for the stucco total immersion test. The 6 day cycle that had fully saturated the stucco 
samples was not long enough for the mortar samples, which took 8 days to reach 
constant weight saturation. At the end of the immersion time, the final saturated 
weight, MsAT, was recorded. The samples that were not too soft for handling were 
tested for open porosity. The samples were dried to constant weight and re- weighed. 
The final dry weight was used for all calculations, as many of the mortar samples 
experienced disintegration during the immersion in water. The percent of moisture 
absorbed by total immersion, percent open porosity and the initial slope were 
calculated by the equations given above. See Appendix C - Experimental Data. 

An interesting comparison can be made between the Msat of the interior mortar sample 
and the Msat of the first layer of stucco, the layer that would normally interface with 
the mortar. In all cases, the stucco layer was less capable of holding moisture than the 
mortar. This difference in moisture capacity has the potential to be a positive aid in the 
drying out of interior moisture, assuming the stucco layer's ability to draw moisture by 

105 Atialysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

capillary action is great enough, a property that was discussed in Section 3.5 on 
moisture driven decay mechanisms. The mortar samples were generally much more 
delicate and more easily dissolved than the stucco samples, indicating that the mortar 
would be easily damaged in a water filled joint. 

MsAT Comparison between Mortar & Stucco on the Same Tomb 



40% 
35% 
30% 
25% 
20% 
15% 
10% 
5% 
0% 







i j i ii ii j i i i i J i i J i i i i i ii 



^ <^ c^' cs*^ ^"^ ^^ S- S >^ 4^ ^^ o?^ c>^ «,^^ ^^ \^^ k'v^ ^ c>- o<=^ cs^- K^*' 



D Mortar Msat d Msat of 1 st Stucco Layer 



Fig. 5.10 Comparison of the total saturation point for mortar and stucco of the same tomb. 

For the total immersion tests on the brick samples, each was cut into pieces and 3 
samples per brick, each less than 250 g, were chosen for the test. The brick samples 
were air dried at 68-70° F and between 30-35% RH for 3 days. The 3 samples of 
each brick were then placed in a disposable aluminum dish and dried at 83 °C for 14 



J06 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



or more hours. The 21 sample sets were tested in 3 batches to allow working and 
weighing time between samples. The batches were staggered by several days. 




The dry weight of each brick sample 
was recorded and distilled water was 
added to fill each dish, totally 
submerging the 3 brick samples. The 
samples were removed from the water, 
blotted dry and weighed at given 
F,g. 5.11 Total immersion test on brick xTA^ry^As until the difference between 

two successive weighings at a 24 hour interval was less than 1% of the dry weight, and 
less than 0. 1% of the total moisture absorption. The cycle took 16 days. All weights 
were made with an ACB 300 scale with ± 0.01 g error. At the end of the immersion 
time of 16 days, the final weight, Msat was recorded. The mass of the pores was 
calculated by the equations given above and the % open porosity was estimated by the 
amount of water displaced when the sample was placed in a large beaker filled with 
550 or 700 m of distilled water, depending on the sample size. 



An assessment was made of the sediment dissolved fi-om the brick during immersion. 
A disintegration dating scale was used with a rating of "1 = Minimal amount of 
dissolving clays" to "5 = Large amount of dissolving clays." For each brick, the 3 



107 



Analysis d- Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

sample weights, Msat, % water absorption and % open porosity were averaged and the 
results are presented in Appendix C - Experimental Data. 

5.2.3 Additional Tests on Intact Bricks 

Before the intact bricks were cut up for the total immersion testing described above, 
several were tested for surface water permeability through the use of RILEM induction 
tubes. ^^'* Both types of RILEM tubes were tried. The tube designed for testing of 
vertical surfaces simulates the action of wind-driven rain. The one designed for 
horizontal surfaces simulates ground water rising through the base, or falling water on 
the structure top or other exposed surfaces. 

During the Survey in March, 2001, this test was attempted on several tombs with the 
bricks in situ. It was not successfiil as the water absorbed too quickly to measure, or 
the seals would not hold. It was thought that the test could be more successful on 
sample bricks under controlled laboratory conditions. Several brick samples were 
chosen and scrubbed clean of loose dirt and biological growth. Sealant putty was 
warmed slightly, rolled into a thick strand and applied to the RILEM tube. The tube 
was then adhered to the brick surface in the horizontal or vertical mode, depending on 



'^'' Gale, Frances. •'Measurement of Water Absorptioa" APT Bulletin Vol. 21 No. 3-4, (1989): 8-9; 
RILEM International Symposium on the Deterioration and Protection of Stone Monuments: 
Experimental Methods (Test No. II.4). 

108 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

the test, in a location that was free of stucco or mortar remnants. De-ionized water was 
added to the tube and an attempt was made to measure the water absorbed by the brick. 
In all cases, the resuhs were too erratic to use, with no test repetition yielding 
consistent results. Generally, on the soft river bricks, 5 ml of water was absorbed 
within a minute. The harder lake bricks took about 2 -3 minutes to absorb the 5 ml of 
water. In addition, attempts were made to test the stucco covered brick areas. 
However, the seal would not hold on the rough surfaces. It was concluded that this test 
would not be useful for characterizing the bricks in this research. 




An attempt was made to test the 
capillary rise rates on the individual 
bricks. '^^ Several brick samples were 
chosen and scrubbed clean of loose dirt 
J and biological growth. The selected 
bricks were stood on end on glass rods 

Vv, in a container and de-ionized water was 
added to a level of 1 cm above the brick 

edge. Measurements were taken on 

Fig. 5.12 Capillarv rise attempt on a full brick.. 

The brick wet out beneath the stucco. The stucco each of the brick faces every minute for 
remained drv. 



NORMAL 1 1/85 Capillary Water Absorption and Capillary Absorption Coefficient; RILEM 
International Symposium on the Deterioration and Protection of Stone Monuments: Experimental 
Methods (Test No. 11.4). 



109 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

the first 5 minutes, every 5 minutes until 30 minutes had passed, and then every 30 
minutes until the brick was flilly wet. These results were also assessed to be erratic, 
but illustrative of the manner in which bricks can completely wet out beneath a seemingly 
dry stucco layer. Only 6 bricks were tried and it was decided that this test method also was 
not useful for these materials. 

5.2.4 Development of Test Plan for Further Analysis 

The physical characterization and total immersion water absorption tests were selected 
as the means to develop data that would allow for the classification of such a large 
sample universe into groups that merited further testing. The tests described in the 
following sections were not run on all samples. Representative samples were chosen to 
determine the properties of the individual stucco and brick types, and to show the 
combined impacts of stucco on brick, the differing stucco layers upon each other, and 
stucco with surface finishes. Many of the tombs chosen for analysis included the 18 
for which the full system of stucco, brick and mortar were available. For the remainder 
of the samples required, an important criterion was the availability of large enough 
samples to yield both the 5.3 mm disc needed for the MVT test and at least 20 g for the 
acid digestion and gravimetric analysis. Finally, 3 tombs, #09, #600 and #1200, that 
clearly illustrated material incompatibilities both in the field and in the initial testing 
phase, were chosen for advanced analytical work, including Thin-Section Polarized 

110 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 



Light Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Differential 
Thermal Analysis. The full sampling plan can be reviewed in Appendix C. 

5.2.5 Water Vapor Transmission 

The moisture or water vapor transmission rate (MVT or WVT), is a property of a 
material that is useful in evaluating its permeability to moisture vapor. It is defined by 
ASTM as "the steady water vapor flow in unit time through unit area of a body, normal 
to specific parallel surfaces, under specific conditions of temperature and humidity at 
each surface." '^^ A high WVT allows a material to adjust more rapidly, when adhered 
to a damper material, such as the situation in St. Louis Cemetery No. 1, where the interior 
bricks can become wet fi-om rising damp. Field inspection has verified that the stucco 
layers are often dry over damp bricks, and the ability of the stucco to transmit moisture 
vapor was thought to aid in the elimination of the ulterior dampness. 

Stucco - The Water Method of ASTM E 96-95 was adapted for use in this research. 
Due to the availability of samples, only one sample for each tomb condition was 
prepared instead of the 3 specified in the test method. The samples were somewhat 
irregular and care was taken to cut the sample fi-om the most uniformly thick section of 



126 



' ASTM E 96-95 Standard Test Methods for Water Vapor Transmission of Materials; Judith Jacob 
and Norman R. Weiss, "Water Vapor Transmission: Mortars and Pamt" APT BuHetin Vol XXI No 3&4 
(1989): 62-70: NORMAL 21/85; ASTM definitions are fomid in Terminology' C 168. 

JIJ Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

the material. Representative samples were chosen from each of the stucco color groups 
and an attempt was made to create several comparison pairs showing the same stucco 
with and without surface finish. For Tombs #09, #200 and #600, tombs for which the 
most analytical testing was conducted, samples of the gray stucco layered over the 
original stucco were tested against one of the separated layers. 



Thickness to VWT Correlation 
All Stucco Samples without Surface Finish 



y=0.003x + 2.0883 



'■■^:^^'^^- 






WVT (g/daym^) 



The samples differed 
widely in thickness. 
However, it was 
determined that thickness 
differences would not 
invalidate the test once 
the samples reached 

Fig. 5.13 Thickness to mT correlation. equilibrium in the test 

chamber. The WVT values were calculated for a 7 day period after the samples 
reached equilibrium after at least 10 days. The final WVT resuhs showed a positive 
correlation with sample thickness, with the thicker samples having a greater ability to 
transmit water vapor. This correlation indicated that the differences were due to the 
stucco type, not thickness. Had the thickness differences caused WVT to decline with 
increasing thickness, the samples would have required further cutting to ensure that all 
samples were of similar thickness. 



112 



Analysis cfe Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Polyethylene beakers (100ml) with a 5.5 cm top opening and a 2 cm ledge were chosen 
for the test containers. Stucco discs were cut to 5. 1-5.4 cm diameter. The discs were 
dried at 83 °C for 12 hours, then cooled in a desiccator and weighed. During this time, 
the 10 gallon fish tank to be used as the desiccator was outfitted with wire shelves, and 
trays of anhydrous calcium sulfate (DRIERITE®). The tank was sealed with wide 
impermeable transparent tape to bring the interior to dry conditions before the start of 
the test. A combination thermometer and hygrometer was placed in the tank for 
temperature and humidity readings. The dried samples were wrapped tightly with 
electrical tape. The beakers were labeled and filled with 60 ml of distilled water, 
which brought the water level to within Va ± 'A in of the bottom of the sample. 




Fig. 5.14 Stucco sample preparation for HIT test. 



Each sample was placed in 
its marked beaker and 
mehed paraffin wax was 
"S applied around the edge 
with an eyedropper to seal 
the assembly. The full test 
chamber of sample, tape, 
paraffin wax, beaker and 
water was weighed. The 
samples were placed in the 



JJ3 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



tank on elevated wire shelves over the trays of anhydrous calcium sulfate desiccant. The 
samples were spaced to allow good airflow between all samples. The top of the tank was 
sealed with wide impermeable tape. 

Brick -The Water Method of ASTM E 96-95 was adapted for use in this research. 
Due to the minimal availability of samples, only one sample for each tomb condition 
was prepared instead of the 3 specified in the test method. Brick cubes were cut with a 
diamond edge, water cooled saw to approximately 1.9 cm by 3.5 cm by 3.5 cm. This 
allowed the brick cubes to inset into the polyethylene beaker and allow a plastic shield 
to rest on the brick braced by the beaker top's ledge. Representative samples were cut 
from each of the sampled bricks and, where possible, separate samples were prepared 
to compare the bare brick to the same brick with the adhered layer of stucco. 

Polyethylene beakers (100ml) with a 5.5 cm top opening and a 2 cm ledge were chosen 
as the test containers. Polyethylene discs were cut to 5.4 cm diameter and a window of 
approximately 2.4 cm by 2.4 cm was cut to expose the brick surface. The brick samples 
were dried at 83 °C for 12 hours, then cooled in a desiccator and weighed. During this 
time, the 10 gallon tank to be used was prepared as described above for the stucco samples. 



JJ-^ Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

The dried samples were wrapped tightly with electrical tape. The beakers were labeled and 
filled with 50 ml of distilled water which brought the water level to within V* ± V* in of the 
bottom of the sample. Each sample was placed in its marked beaker, the plastic shield was 
placed on top of the sample and mehed paraffin wax was applied around the edge of the 
shield and within the exposure window with an eyedropper to seal the assembly. The 
measurements of the exposed window were taken so that the exposure area could be 
calculated. The fiill test chamber of sample, tape, paraffin wax, beaker and water was 
weighed. The samples were placed in the 10 gallon fish tank on elevated wire shelves over 

the trays of anhydrous 
calcium sulfate 
desiccant. The samples 
I were spaced to allow 
good airflow between all 
samples. The top of the 
^^ tank was sealed. 

Fig. 5.15 Brick cubes for WIT test. 

WIT Caladations - The stucco and brick samples were run in two separate batches in 
early March, 2002, and then after new samples were obtained in early April, 2002. For 
the first run, the weights of the total assemblies were taken every 24 hours. A 7-day 
period after the 10* day was chosen for calculations, after it was assured that all 




115 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

samples were at an equilibrium rate of moisture transmission. For the second run, the 
weights were taken less frequently, and a 7-day period was also chosen after the 
samples had been exposed for 10 days. For both runs, the samples stayed in the tanks 
for over 1 8 days. Any sample that tipped over, broke the seal or cracked was 
eliminated. The tank conditions were kept at between 69-71 °C and 22-30% RH, All 
weights were made with an ACB 300 balance with a ±0.01 g error. Readings of weight 
change rates were very consistent during the testing cycle as can be seen in the curves of 
daily weight loss % of all the brick samples in Figure 5.16 below. 



Daily Weight Loss % Readings - Brick Samples 




Days 



13-01 

107-01 
09-04X 
548-0 IX 
-579-03 



13-01X 

146-01 
251-01 
558-02 
- 579-03X 



45-02 -^ 89-04 

1 46-01 X ^.^120-01 

259-01 259-02 

558-03X 573-01 

593-02 A 1200-05 



89-04X 
1 20-01 X 

334-01 
573-01 X 
1200-06 



92-02X 

09-04 
548-01 
579-02 
-BrkCTRL 



Fig. 5. 16 15 daily weight loss % readings - Brick samples. 



116 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

The water vapor transmission (WVT) is calculated as follows: 

G 



WVT 



tA 



Where G = weight change (grams) 
t = time (hours) 
A = test area (cm'^) 
WVT = rate of water vapor transmission, g/(h cm^) 

Calculations were also made for g/day m^. See Appendix C for a summary chart of the 
experimental results. 



Water Vapor Transmission - Stucco Samples 
WVT (g/day*m^) 




200 



150 



100 



50 



AUUl 



nrnffjliiiiiiiiiiiiii 






£• n a O ra o 



Fig 5.17 Water vapor transmission results for stucco samples. 

Generally, the stucco samples with surface finish (modern) were higher in WVT than 
had been expected, but were still consistently lower than the same or similar sample 
tested without surface finish. In the sample of Tomb #548 tested with and without a 



117 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

modern surface finish, the modem finish reduced the WVT of the stucco by almost 

40%. Yet in Tomb #89, where the Dark Tan stucco is still covered with thick remnants 

of a permeable lime based surface finish, the difference between WVT results was 

insignificant, or within experimental error. 

Table 2 

Water Vapor Transmission Results for Specific Stucco Samples 

Tested With and Without Surface Finish (SF) 









Wt. 




Test 












Change 


Thickness 


Area 


Diameter 


WVT 


Samples 


Type 


Finish 


(g) 


(cm) 


(cm) 


(cm) 


g/day*m^ 


548-02 


Tan 


ModSF 


1.64 


0.790 


22.05 


5.2 


106 


548-04X 


Tan 


NoSF 


2.45 


2.780 


21.23 


5.2 


165 


89-02 


DkTan 


LimeSF 


1.95 


0.709 


20.42 


5.1 


136 


89-X 


DkTan 


NoSF 


1.99 


4.130 


21.23 


5.2 


134 



The averages for the non-SF samples, when separated into color groups and by the 
different brick types, clearly showed the Gray (cement) Group stucco to have the 
lowest WVT and the very soft, porous River brick to have the highest WVT. According to 
these results, in a 2.5 by 3 meter wall of lake brick covered by Gray stucco, the stucco 
would only allow 435 g of the 4.5 kg of moisture vapor that the lake brick could pass. 



Figure 5.18 shows the progression of WVT resuhs fi^om the least permeable to the 
most. A layer of Tan stucco is 3 times more capable of passing moisture vapor than a 
layer of Gray stucco. All of the brick with stucco samples had either Tan or Dark Tan 
stucco. The bare bricks are the most permeable and when covered with stucco, they 
loose approximately half their ability to pass moisture vapor. 

118 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Water Vapor Transmission 
WVT (g/day*m^) 



800 




























700 




HHI 




N 




1 


-^ 600 














^ 


E 500 

>> 

•S 400 












300 












S 200 




331 




100 


■*■ 


i..i 


Hl45^^ 


181 


■A^^ 











376 11^602 1^71 2 1 




Gray 


White 


DkTan 


Tan 


Lake River Bare Lake Bare River 
Brick ■'nI Brick w/ Brick Brick 
Stucco Stucco 



Fig. 5. 18 Water vapor transmission results for brick samples. 
5,2.6 Capillary Absorption 

The methodology for capillary absorption and drying rates was adapted from the 
NORMAL and RILEM published test methods, the work of Massari and Massari and 
Vos, and the laboratory developed by E. Charola.'^'' After the conclusion of the MVT 
test, the 35 stucco discs and 3 1 brick cubes were dried for 24 hours at 83 °C and 
weighed on the ACB 300 scale to ±0.01g. The stucco discs were set on edge in open 
wire baskets adapted with tape spacers to hold the samples upright and separated 



'^ NORMAL 1 1/85. Draft translation by E. Charola; RILEM Test No 11.6; Massari and Massari. 2 1 - 
31;Vos. "Water Absorption and Drying of Materials." 679-694, Vos. "Moisture in Monuments." 147- 
153. Charola. Advanced Conservation Science Laboratory "Water Absorption and Drying Behavior." 



119 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

through the testing. The baskets were placed on glass rods in a large polyethylene 
container and distilled water was added so that only the bottom 1 cm of the disc 
contacted the water. The contact surface arc was determined to be 4.5 cm, so the 
contact surface area of each disc edge was calculated using the 4.5 cm arc and the 
sample thickness. Calculations were made for density, surface area, volume, and 
contact area for the stucco discs and the brick cubes. The brick cubes were placed 
directly on glass rods in a separate polyethylene container. For those brick cubes that 
contained stucco, the stucco surface was positioned at the side of the sample, so that 
capillary water rise would occur as it would on a tomb wall. Distilled water was added 
so that only the bottom 1 cm of the cube contacted the water. The contact surface area 
used was the calculation of the area of the cube face contacting the water. 

At predetermined times, samples were removed, blotted dry and weighed throughout 
the 9 day test. The containers were kept sealed between weighings to keep the 
chambers at 100% RH, and as needed, distilled water was added to keep the samples in 
contact with the water. 

After all samples had reached a constant capillary absorption state, Wcap, where the 
differences in moisture absorption between weighings were all less than 0. 1%, the 
samples were fully immersed in distilled water for another 24 hours and then weighed 



120 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

for the fully saturated weight, Msat- The differences between Msat and Wcap were 
small, as could be expected for such porous materials/^^ 




Fig. 5.19 Stucco discs racked in water for capillary 
absorption test. 



Fig 5.20 SamplcJnji)FroinhU275, Gray 
Group stucco showing salts from the stucco 
forming at the interface of brick skin during 
the capillary absorption test. 



The amount of water absorbed per unit surface, Mi (g/cm^) was calculated and plotted 
against the square root of time to create the capillary absorption curves for each sample. 
The initial straight part of the curves was used to calculate the capillary absorption 
coefficient, which is the slope of that part of the curve, expressed in g/cm^ sec °^. 
Calculations were made to determine the individual capillary absorption rates by sample and 
the results were then grouped and averaged to compare data between stucco and brick types. 



Massari and Massari. 22-25. 



121 



Analysis c?- Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 



0200-04, 0200-05 Capillary Absorption Curves 



0.24 
o 

I 020 

3 

in 

= 0.16 

3 ,J~ 

1 I 0.12 
•D a 

a — 

€ 008 

o 

in 

2 0.04 
« 

S 0.00 



200-04. Dk Tan v=^ 



r 



200-05, Gray y :: O.OOOSx * 0.0004 



Capillary Absorption Coefficients = .0018 vs .0008 g/cm^ sec ° 



100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 

Square root of Time (sec) 



^ 



Fig. 5.21 Capillary absorption cur\>es. 



The total water absorbed, or the Imbibition Capacity, was calculated: 

(MsAT - MDRY)/Mi>y X 100 = Imbibition Capacity % 

This test confirmed the results from the total immersion tests of both stucco and brick 
groups. The White group stucco is almost as absorbent as the River brick, and slightly 
more absorbent than the Lake brick. The Gray group is less than half as absorbent as are 
the bricks. The capillary absorption coefficient calculated for these samples provides an 
mdication of the pulling power of each group when placed in contact with water through 
rising damp or rainfall. All stucco groups have much lower capillary absorption 
coefficient values, which would be beneficial in their exterior protection role. The high 
coefficients for the brick samples are consistent with the observed condition of damp 
interior bricks resulting from capillary action (rising damp). 



122 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



Table 3 

Summary Results from Capillary Absorption Test 

Stucco Without Surface Finish, Bare Brick 



Sample Type 


Cap. Absorp Coeff. 

g/cm2 sec"' 


Imbibition Capacity % 


Gray Stucco 


0.0019 


9.04% 


WhiteGray Stucco 


0.0023 


1 1 .05% 


DkTan Stucco 


0.0024 


11.73% 


Tan Stucco 


0,0025 


12.21% 


White Stucco 


0.0052 


23.02% 


Lake Brick 


0.0341 


18.18% 


River Brick 


0.0471 


23.93% 



5.2.7 Drying Curves and Drying Rates 

The methodology for the determination of drying rates was adapted from the 
NORMAL and RILEM published test methods, the work of Massari and Massari and 
Vos, and the laboratory developed by E. Charola.'^^ The fully saturated samples of 
stucco and brick were removed from the water. The stucco samples were placed in the 
dry open wire baskets adapted with tape spacers, and the brick cubes were placed on 
dry glass rod supports and weighed at predetermined times. The sample containers 
ensured a draft free environment. All weights were made on the ACB 300 balance at ±0.01 



- NORMAL 29/88. Draft translation by E. Charola; RDLEM Test No n.5; Massari and Massari. 21- 
31:Vos. "Water Absorption and Drying of Materials." 679-694. Charola. Advanced Conservation 
Science Laboratory "Water Absorption and Drying Beha\ior." 



J23 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOVIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

g accuracy. The stucco samples were dried for 3.5 days and the brick samples for 4.5 days. 
After the drying period, the samples were dried at 83 °C for 12 hours and re-weighed. 

Using the data from the drying test, drying rates were calculated and curves were 
developed to determine the critical water content (*Fc). None of the curves graphed with 
the exact shape and precision of those seen in the Vos, Massari and Massari and other 
published test methodology literature. '^° According to RILEM Test No. n.5, multi- 
dimensional evaporation, form of the sample, initial water content, material properties and 
boundary conditions can all affect the shape of the curve. '^' However, the curves do show 
the distinct drying phases and the bending point and can be used to describe differences 
between materials. 

For Tomb #600, the Tan stucco layer alone was compared to stucco containing a layer 
of Gray stucco over the older Tan stucco, as is currently on the tomb. In both curves, 
the initial decrease in rate of drying occurs during the first 30 minutes, when the exterior 
adsorbed water of the very wet outer surface evaporates. In the single layer Tan stucco, the 
primary diffusion phase is relatively flat and continues until only 0.017 g/cm^ of moisture 
is left in the sample. 



'^*^ The graphs referenced do not include a sharp cune change at the initiation of the test. Those tests 
started with samples at the nia.\imum point reached through capillary absorption, as compared to this 
research which started measurement of the drying curve at the saturation point after total immersioa 

'^' RILEM No II.5. p 2. 

124 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 



600-04 Tan Layer, Drying Rate 
Amount of Moisture Lost per Unit Time vs. Moisture Content 



0.200 

ST 0.180 

? 0.160 

« 0.140 

5 0.120 

I 0.100 

5 0.080 
o 

S 0.060 

;S 0.040 

« 0.020 

0.000 



Critical moisture content U'c=.017g /em^ 



0.060 0.050 0.040 0.030 020 

Moisture Content (M* g/cm') 



0010 



Fig. 5.22 Drying rate cun'e identifies the critical moisture content point. 



000 



600-02 Tan-Gray Combo, Drying Rate 
Amount of Moisture Lost per Unit Time vs. Moisture Content 



0.120 
0.100 
0.080 
0.060 
0.040 
0.020 



0.000 



■ Critical moisture content *Pc=.045g/cm^ 




0060 0050 0040 030 020 

Moisture Content (^> g/cm') 



0.010 



0.000 



5.23 Drying rate cun'e for a combination sample. 



125 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 

The combination sample is much more erratic, which can be explained by the differential 
evaporation happening on the two sides of the sample. The very high initial rates might 
also represent the Tan layer pulling moisture from the Gray layer. The critical moisture 
point of the system is high at .045 g/m^. On the tomb, the Gray layer would restrict the 
ability of the brick and Tan layer to dry, keeping the inner materials damp longer than the 
Tan layer alone. 

Table 4 

Summary Results from Drying Rates 

Stucco Without Surface Finish, Bare Brick 





Critical Moisture 


Critical Moisture 


Sample Type 


Content 


Content % 


Gray Stucco 


0.0364 


82.57% 


WhiteGray Stucco 


0.0380 


80.06% 


Dklan Stucco 


0.0272 


51 .72% 


Tan Stucco 


0.0309 


53.86% 


White Stucco 


0.0215 


33.68% 


Lake Brick 


0.1532 


48.51% 


River Brick 


0.0313 


7.60% 



126 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 

5.2.8 Acid Soluble Analysis & Gravimetric Analysis 

The literature includes multiple articles describing the basic mortar analysis 
techniques. '^^ Most rely on a crushed sample, digested in acid, filtered, with a weight 
calculation made for the fines, percent soluble and percent insoluble (aggregate) 
fi"actions. The insoluble fi^action is then sieved through multiple screens to separate the 
aggregate by size. Each of these fi^actions can then be further analyzed by microscopy 
or more advanced chemical analyses. Such basic methodology yields much 
information on the mixture and is particularly helpfijl in preparing replacement mortars 
that will be similar in color, texture and component ratios. The method does not allow 
an exact accounting of the original binder to aggregate ratio, the methods used for 
mixing and placing the mortar, the rate of drying or the mineralogical identification of 
binder and aggregate. Calcareous binders, some silicates and clay impurities can react 
with hydrochloric acid, skewing the results and obscuring the identification of the 
binder. Petrographic analysis with the microscope and X-Ray diffraction are often 
used for mineralogical identification, and the acid digestion solute can be further 
analyzed by acid/base titration, Infra-Red spectroscopy or other analytical techniques. 



'^^ ASTM C136-84a Standard Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates; Teutonico. 
113-1 15: E. Blaine. 'Tests for the Analysis of Mortar Samples." APT Bulletin Vol. VI No. 1 (1974): 68-73; 
Matero. ACS Laboraton,^ E.xperiment #9. 'Mortar Analysis. Simple Method." 

127 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

There are many articles listed in the Bibliography that present work on methodology to 
simplify or make the basic mortar analysis technique more informative. For this research, 
the general properties and any differences between the 4 stucco types and the mortar 
were the reasons for mortar analysis, and only a few samples were fiirther analyzed 
microscopically and through XRD, SEM and TGA. The "Simple Method of Mortar 
Analysis" was used, adapted from instructions in the ARC: A Laboratory Manual for 
Architectural Conservators. An example of the mortar analysis worksheet developed 
to document all observations and results gathered during the analysis is included in 
Appendix C. 

The samples chosen for analysis were crushed finely with a mortar and pestle, and then 
dried in a 100°C oven for 24 hours. The target size for the sample was 50 g, however, 
due to availability, most samples only yielded 20-30 g for testing. Samples were each 
characterized for color using the Munsell Soil Charts (ASTM Dl 535-97), texture and 
hardness. No foreign organic matter (beyond biological growth) was detected in any of 
the samples. Where a sample contained crushed shell, brick or charcoal, it was noted. 

The dry sample to be digested in acid was weighed, then placed in a 600ml beaker and 
moistened with water. Hydrochloric acid at 4M concentration was slowly added to the 
beaker and the type, intensity and bubbling of the reaction was recorded using a to 3 
scale, with 3 being most aggressive, or largest, long lasting bubbles. More acid was 

128 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

added over an 8 hour period of digestion until no further reaction was evident. After 8 
hours, the acid digestion solution was carefiilly diluted with distilled water and the 
liquid was stirred to levitate the fine particles, separating them fi-om the heavier or 
larger particles at the bottom of the beaker. The solution was poured into a volumetric 
flask through a funnel with weighed filter paper. The coarse fraction was washed 
numerous times to ensure that all acid and fines were separated. The color of the 
filtrate was noted. 

The fines and filter paper were dried for 24 hours and weighed. The coarse fraction 
was allowed to dry in the beaker overnight, then was transferred to a metal weighing 
dish and dried for 12 hours and weighed. The weight of the fine and coarse fi^actions 
were subtracted from the initial dry weight to calculate the weight of the acid soluble 
fraction and all fi^actions were expressed as a w/w%. Using volumetric conversion 
estimates by Cliver, an estimate was also made of the v/v% to determine original 
mixing ratios. ^^^ The color of the fines was characterized by Munsell Soil Charts 
(ASTMD1535-97). 

The coarse fraction was sieved in a standard soil analysis sieve set with 7 screens 
(2.36mm, 1,18mm, 600|xm, 300 ^im, 150 |im, 75 |am and <75 ^m.) according to ASTM 
C136-84a. The amount collected in each screen was weighed and calculations and 



Cliver. 70. 



129 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

graphs were made showing the distribution of the aggregate in the coarse fraction by 
percentage and by cumulative percent retained. The amount of aggregate that 
remained in the <75 ^m pan was then subtracted from the coarse fraction and added to 
the fines fraction. The sieved aggregate was inspected and photographed with the 
Reflected Light, Nikon SMZ-U Microscope and Nikon AFX n A Camera at 5X and the 
images were included in the Mortar Analysis Worksheet. 

In Figure 5.24 below, the weight percent distribution of Fine, Coarse and Acid Soluble 
fractions are compared for the 5 stucco groups and the mortar. The mortar samples had 
significantly higher fines fractions than did the stucco samples and the fines were 
generally a Munsell lOYR or 7. SYR with a reddish clay or fine silt appearance. 



Gravimetric Analysis - Weight % 
30 Stucco Samples, 20 Mortar Samples 



80% 
70% 
60% 
50% 
40% 
30% 
20% 
10% 
0% 



r 




r 


r 


r 


~ 


r 


l^w 


■ 1 



White (4) Tan (8) DkTan(6) Gray(9) WhiteGr(3) All Shell 

Mortar(20) Mortar(8) 



□ Avg. Fines % DAyg Agg. % DAvg Acid Sol % 



Fig. 5.24 Weight % averages for fine, course and acid soluble fractions by group. 



130 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

The mortar samples varied widely in reaction aggressiveness and in mineralogical 
components in the coarse fraction, A group of 8 samples appeared to be poorly 
digested because of a "shell" of matte white material that coats the particles, often in all 
fractions. An example of this can be seen in Figures 5,25 and 5.26. These samples all 
had very aggressive reactions and large long lasting foam. These samples have a much 
lower aggregate content than do the other mortars and all stucco samples tested. 




Fig. 5.25 09-03 Mortar, Sieve Fraction J, 
2 and 3. 5x magnification. 



Fig. 5.26 45-03 Mortar, Sieve Fraction 1, 
2 and 3. 5x magnification. 









Gravimetric Analysis Results 






\ 


Mortar DifFerences 




50 00% , 
4500% 
4000% 
35. OCA 




^ 




44% 








40% 


1 












34% 








31% 








2000% 




26% 




25% 






















In J^ ^ 


















5 00% ^^M 






MHi 








m 


A 


1 M<x1art20) Shell Mortar 


8) 


-' 


|aA>^. 


Fines % 


3A>fl Agg % c 


Avg Acid 


Sol% 



Fig. 5.27 Mortar type dififerences - Gravimetric analysis results. 



131 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

The aggregate fractions in the mortar samples showed a definite skew to the finer 
aggregate sizes with the shell group showing the most dramatic skew to 75|jxn. The 
stucco groups, in comparison, were all well sorted and the distribution in aggregate size 
was very similar between stucco groups, with the Tan and Dark Tan groups having the 
closest distribution around 300 ^un. 



Gravimetric Analysis Results 
Aggregate % Retained 




2 36mm 118mm SOOpm 300\im ISOtJm TSpm 



<75pm 



♦ White (4) 
— I — WhGray Stucco ■ 



Tan (8) 
-All Mortar 



DkTan(6) 
Shell Mortar 



-Gray (9) 



Fig. 5.28 

Aggregate analysis, 
% retained 



The fact that the aggregate becomes more sub-angular in the Dark Tan and Gray group 
may be an indication that hydraulic mixtures (natural cements) containing non-local 
sands are being used. The local sands came originally from upriver stones, and when 
deposited by the Mississippi River, were sub rounded as the result of hundreds of 
millions of years of weathering and water polishing. 



132 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Gravimetric Analysis Results 
Aggregate % Passing 




236nnm 1 18nnm eOOpm SOOpm 150pm 75jjm 



<75pm 



♦ White (4) 
-(— WhiteGr(3) 



Tan (8) 
-All Mortar 



DkTan(6) • 
Shell Mortar 



-Gray(9) 



Fig. 5.29 

Aggregate analysis. 
Same results expressed 
as % passing. 



After considering the differences exhibited by the mortar samples, the samples in the 
different stucco groups show much greater similarities in the distribution between 
fines, coarse and acid soluble fractions. The White group, expected to be primarily 
lime, had a significantly greater acid soluble fraction, while the other groups varied 
only a minor amount. 

The White group of 4 samples had the most aggressive reaction to the addition of acid, 
with big frothy bubbles and a resultant solute of gold/yellow to light yellow. The 
rounded to sub-rounded aggregate showed no signs of incomplete digestion, was 
primarily of clear and yellow quartz and all fractions of all samples contained particles 
of brick. There were also lustrous black particles in each fraction of each sample. 
Black sand is generally quartz with iron impurities, such as ilmenite (FeTi03), 



133 



Afjalysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



magnitite (various iron silicates) or particles of feberite (FeN04).'^'' The sample from 
the oldest wall vault, #1200, also contained dull greasy black particles, suspected to be 
charcoal. Sample #200-03 was unusual in the overwhelming amount (>40%) of brick 
particles and it is thought that this "patch" on the outside of one wall was an experiment 
with local lore that describes added brick dust as both a colorant and hydraulic 
component. The Munsell color of the fines for all other White group samples was 2. SYR 
6/1 The very high ratio of acid soluble fraction to fines and aggregate to acid soluble is 
distinctively different in this group from the other stucco groups. 

The 8 samples from the Tan group and 6 from the Dark Tan group came both from 
tombs of a single layer and from the combination tombs of a Gray layer over an earlier 
layer. The Gray results are in the discussion below. The Tan group did not react with 
acid as aggressively as the White Group, with only 3 of the 8 samples having a reaction 
rated at "3 = Most Aggressive" and with less foaming that died down more quickly. 
The solute was generally light yellow. Most of the samples were fiilly digested, and of 
the few that were not, the remaining binder on the aggregate did not react to HCl when 
later tested, indicating components that were not soluble. The sub-rounded aggregate 
included more yellowed or cloudy appearing quartz, small amounts of clear amber to 
brown particles and most fractions contained some of the particles containing iron. 
Brick particles were seen in 5 of the 8 samples in small quantities and 6 of the 8 



Sybil T. Paiker. ed Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, New York: McGraw Hill, 1983. 



J 34 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

samples showed considerable shell particles in the finer fractions. The color of the 
fines varied, particularly in darkness of shade, but all were either Munsell 7. SYR or 
1 OYR and none had a gray appearance. 

The Dark Tan group reacted to the addition of acid in a similar manner as the Tan 
group. The solute was generally light yellow. There were 2 samples that did not fiilly 
digest. When tested later with HCl, the remnants did not react. The aggregate tended to 
be both sub-rounded and sub-angular and many of the fractions had dark beige clusters that 
also did not react when drop tested with HCl. Brick was evident in 3 of the 6 samples, but 
only in small amounts. There were more black iron containing particles than had been 
seen in the Tan group. All but one of the fines were rated Munsell 7. SYR with most being 
on the 7. SYR 6/x level. None had a gray appearance. 

The Gray group samples were those suspected to contain modem Portland cement. 
These samples reacted the least aggressively to acid digestion and 7 of the 9 samples 
did not fiilly digest, 4 of which later reacted to HCl and 3 of which did not. The solute 
was generally light yellow to greenish yellow and 2 of the samples had green frothy 
bubbles. The primarily quartz aggregate was sub-rounded and sub-angular, and 
contained bright orange and shiny yellow sub-angular particles. There were also light 
gray to bluish gray particles in both lustrous and dull forms and the finer fractions often 
contained many flat white crystals which were not shell and which did not react at all to 

135 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



HCl. The color of the fines was predominantly gray to gray/white with 6 of the 9 samples 
rated Munsell Gley 1 8/N, one at Gleyl 7/N, and the rest were one of the light grays on the 
Munsell YR pages. 

The White Gray group was initially included in the Gray group, but the samples were 
found to differ significantly. Only 3 were tested and all reacted aggressively upon 
exposure to HCl. All did not digest completely, but the remains did not react to spot 
testing with HCl. The aggregate for these samples contains some of the same bright 
orange and yellow particles as did the Gray group, as well as more of the black iron 
containing particles in each sieve fraction. Most notable was the high level of the flat 
white particles in the finer fractions. These particles did not show any bi-refringence when 
tested later on the polarizing microscope and it is expected that they are china clay, often 
added to white Portland cement in place of the iron oxides. 

Few definitive conclusions can be made based on the results of these 30 stucco and 20 
mortar samples, except that the mortars consist of a greater percentage of fines which 
appear to be clays and silt. The high acid soluble fraction in the White group confirms the 
high proportion of lime suspected in the binder. Both the Tan and Dark Tan groups 
contained non-digested particles that may be from the burning of clay containing hydraulic 
lime. There is a great diversity between samples within each group and more analysis of a 



136 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

greater number of samples would be advisable to be able to fully characterize the stucco 
and mortar at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1. 





Table 5 
Gravimetric Analysis Weight % Results 








Stucco Samples (30) 


Mort 


ar (20) 


Weight % 


White 
(4) 


Tan 

(8) 


DkTan 
(6) 


Gray 
(9) 


WhGr 

(3) 


Ail 

(20) 


Shell 
Type (8) 


Average Fines % 


8.57% 


13.12% 


12.97% 


13.48% 


12.43% 


30.85% 


40.41% 


Average Agg. % 


20.92% 


54.73% 


52.83% 


57.55% 


50.05% 


43.53% 


25.16% 


Average AcidSol % 


70.51% 


32.15% 


34.21% 


28.96% 


37.52% 


25.62% 


34.43% 


Approx. Ratio 

(w/w%) 


1/2.4 
/8.2 


1/4.2 
/2.5 


1 /4 
/2.6 


1 /4.7 
/2.1 


1 /4 
/3 


1.2/1.7 
/I 


1.6/1 
/1.4 


Fines+ AcidSol :Agg 


7.3/1 


1/1.2 


1 /1.1 


1 /1. 3 


1 /I 


1.3/1 


3.2/1 


Average Reaction 


3+ 


2.38 


2.33 


1.67 


2.33 


2.45 


3.00 


Average Bubbles 


3+ 


2.75 


2.50 


1.78 


2.33 


2.45 


3.00 


% Retained 
















Sieve 1 - 2.36 mm 


2.08% 


0.20% 


0.14% 


0.29% 


0.00% 


0.74% 


1 .93% 


Sieve 2- 1.18 mm 


4.03% 


1 .58% 


2.40% 


4.52% 


2.77% 


4.23% 


10.50% 


Sieve 3 - 600 jim 


12.73% 


16.31% 


19.01% 


9.32% 


13.24% 


5.53% 


9.21% 


Sieve 4- 300 nm 


49.71% 


62.30% 


61.32% 


53.78% 


51 .49% 


24.42% 


15.43% 


Sieve 5 -150 ^m 


21 .94% 


14.52% 


12.80% 


25.23% 


26.18% 


32.69% 


15.88% 


Sieve 6-75 ^m 


6.92% 


3.83% 


3.37% 


5.20% 


5.04% 


22.65% 


32.23% 


Pan (7) - <75 jim 


2.59% 


1 .26% 


0.96% 


1 .66% 


1 .28% 


9.73% 


14.83% 



137 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

5.2.9 Calcimetry 

It was planned to use the calcimeter to determine that part of the acid soluble fraction 
that could be totally attributed to carbonates (C03°) which produce CO2 upon 
dissolution in hydrochloric acid. The reaction that occurs is: 

CaCOs + 2 HCl ^ Ca^ + 2 Cr + H2O + CO2 
This can help determine whether a mortar is totally lime based or whether it includes 
other hydraulic components, The clay impurities and the silicates from hydraulic lime, 
natural cement and Portland cements can be partially dissolved in the acid soluble 
method. The calcimeter identifies that part of the soluble fraction that is made up of 
carbonates only, allowing finer differentiations to be made. 

However, the calcimeter method is very prone to both equipment and operator error. 
Several tests resulted in erratic resuhs, and it was decided that this test would not be 
used. The methodology does have merit and should be included in any ftiture research. 
To be used, it would be necessary to have more samples so that more repetitions could 
be made to reduce operator error and make the data statistically reliable. According to 
Teutonico, "In actual practice at ICCROM, the test has proved less reliable and 
consistent than simple mortar analysis. This may be due to problems with the 
instrument or with the formula and constant used for calculations."'^^ 



' Teutonico, 1 1 7. 



138 Atjalysis d Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

5.2.10 Presence of Salts 

Salts were not observed to be a persistent problem at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1. 
However, each of the stucco samples ground for mortar analysis, and a small amount 
of dissolved brick and solution from the brick total immersion test, were tested for the 
presence of water soluble salts, including sulfates, chlorides, nitrites, nitrates and 
carbonates. '^^ 

Samples were placed in 10 cc test tubes and filled half-way with distilled water and 
shaken gently. After the insoluble portion of the sample had settled to the bottom of 
the test tube, a small amount of liquid was poured into 3 additional 10 cc test tubes. 

To analyze for sulfates (SO4'), 2 drops of 2N hydrochloric acid (HCl) and 2 drops of a 
10% solution of barium chloride (BaCb) were added to the first test tube. A white 
precipitate of BaS04 would indicate the presence of sulfates. 

SO/ + BaCb ^ BaS04 + 2Cr 
Only 4 stucco samples showed any sign of sulfates and none of the brick solutions 
tested positive. 



' Teutonico, 58-65; NORMAL 13/83 Determination of Total Amount of Soluble Salts. 

J 39 Atiafysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

To analyze for chlorides, 2 drops of nitric acid and 2 drops of silver nitrate (AgNOs) 
were added to the second test tube. A whitish-blue, gelatinous precipitate of silver 
chloride (AgCl) would indicate the presence of chlorides. 

Cr + AgNOs ^ AgCl + NOs' 
Only 2 stucco samples showed any indication of chlorides. Of the brick solutions, 3 of 
the lake bricks and 1 of the river bricks showed a slight positive indication. 

To analyze for nitrites (NO2") 2 drops of dilute acetic acid (CH3COOH) and 2 drops of 
Griess-Ilosvay's reagent were added to the third test tube. A pink color would indicate 
the presence of nitrites. 

When the solution did not turn pink, an analysis for nitrates (NO3") was run on the 
same test tube. A small amount of zinc powder was added. Zinc reacts in the presence 
of acetic acid to convert nitrates to nitrites, if present, and a pink color would result. 
None of the samples showed the presence of nitrites, and when zinc was added, none 
showed the presence of nitrates. 

To analyze for carbonates, the insoluble residue in the bottom of the original test tube 
was tested with 2 drops of 2N HCl. All of the stucco samples reacted positively to this 
test and none of the bricks were affected. The reaction: 

CaCOa + 2 HCl ^ CaCb (soluble) + H2O + CO2 (gas) 

140 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

The chemical spot tests for salt presence produced minimal results (except for 
carbonates on the stucco). This confirmed the field observations and the tests that had 
been conducted to identify salts during the Survey. However, to look more closely at 

the possibility of sah 
^^j-:- s a-,' ■, t »teiBEl ^^ ^ V » i presence, another test tube 

per sample was prepared to 
retest the stucco samples 
using indicator strips. 
Merckoquant® strips were 
used to test for presence of 
sulfates, chlorides, nitrites 

and nitrates. Again, no 

Fig. 5.30 Testing for salts with Merckquant® indicator strips. 

sample showed evidence of nitrites or nitrates. In the chart below a "+" for chloride 
indicated 1000 mg/1 CI' and a "+-" indicated 500 mg/1 CI". Only sample #200-05(Gray) 
tested at over 800 mg/1 sulfate and all others that tested positive were between 400 and 
800 mg/1 sulfate. These results indicate that a small amount of salts are present to take 
part in the decay mechanisms. Most of the stucco sample layers that tested positive for 
sulfates are from tombs with multiple layers of stucco, where at least one of the other 
layers is of cement. 




141 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Table 6 



Qualitative Analysis for Soluble Salt 



Sample 


Sulfates 


Chlorides 


Sample 


Sulfates 


Chlorides 


White 






Dark Tan 






200-03 


+- 


+- 


89-02 


+- 


+- 


259-04 




+ 


573-03 




+- 


1200-02 




-1-- 


107-03 


+- 


+- 
+- 


Tan 






200-01 


+- 


45-01 




+- 


39-02 




+- 


548-02 


+- 


+- 


558-04 




+- 


13-01 




+- 


Gray 




+- 


600-04 


+- 


+- 


44-01 


+- 


09-08 




+- 


581-01 


+- 


+- 


14-01 






1300-01 


+- 


+- 


558-05 




+- 


600-02 


+- 


+- 


1200-07 




+- 


09-07 




+- 


White Gray 






14-02 






275-02 




+ 


39-01 


-I-- 


+ 


602-02 


+- 


+- 


200-05 


+ 


+ 


1200-01 


+- 


+ 


558-07 


+- 


+- 



5.2.11 Optical Microscopy 

Reflected and transmitted microscopy are both useftil in mortar and surface finish 
analysis. At the optical level of magnification, the differences in aggregate and binder 
paste can be compared for color, porosity and components. In the samples prepared for 
this research, the hypothesis was that the cement binder paste would appear finer with 
lower porosity and that it might be possible to see areas of damage fi-om the formation 



J-f2 



Analysis t& Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

of expansive salts. '^^ Hydration products often can be seen as a rim around quartz on 
both the cement and hydraulic lime mortar. If the mortar is hydraulic due to the 
addition of pozzolans, this can often be noticed in optical microscopy, as the pozzolans 
can be seen and a hydration ring is sometimes visible around the particle. 

Several representative samples were prepared fi^om each of the stucco type groups. A 
small chip was cut showing the area of interest and was embedded in a catalyst setting 
polymer (Bioplast®). Thick sections were made with two parallel cuts with the 
Buehler Isomet® low-speed diamond blade. The samples were each hand polished on 
a Buehler polishing cloth with a small amount of water and 0.05 \im alumina powder 
and then affixed to a glass slide with Duco® cement. Before viewing, a temporary 
cover glass was attached with a drop of Stoddard's solvent. 

An example of the differences that can be seen in samples by reflected light 
microscopy is illustrated by Figures 5.3 1 and 5.32. Both samples are fi-om Tomb # 09, 
which is an early platform tomb with a first visible date of 1822. It has been encased in 
heavy cement. The cross-sections were photographed at 1 2. 5x magnification. While 
not always the case, the tombs that had multiple layers generally did have a more 



A. MoropouloiL A. Bakolas, and K. Bisbikou. "Physico-Chemical Adhesion and Cohesion Bonds in 
Joint Mortars Imparting E>urabiUty to the Historic Structures." Construction and Building Materials 14 
(2000): 35-46: K. CallebauL J. Elsen. K. Van Balen and W. Viaene. "Nineteenth Century Hydraulic 
Restoration Mortars in the Saint Michael's Church (Leuven. Belgium) Natural Hydrauhc Lime or 
Cement?" Cement and Concrete Research 31 (2001): 397-403. 

/■/i Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



porous paste in the inner, older layer and denser matrix in the outer layer. The optical 
appearance correlated with the density data developed in the capillary absorption test. 





Fig. 5.21 Tan layer on Tomb #09. 12.5 x. 



Fig. 5.32 Gray layer on Tomb #09. 12.5 x. 



Figures 5.33 and 5.34 show the mortar from Tomb #09. In the paste, brick dust can be 
seen, as can a piece of shell. The paste is a very different consistency and porosity than 
either of the stucco layers. 

Although each of the samples was carefully inspected at both 12.5 x and 25 x 
magnification, no evidence of hydration rings or damaging salt formation could be 
seen. Only one sample, seen here in Figure 5.35, showed damage between the stucco 



144 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



layers. It was determined that while thick sections might be very appropriate for 
surface finish analysis, they are not the best choice for micro-structure. 




Fig. 5.35 Tomb #600, The black area 
between the gray and tan sections of the 
image is the damage detected between the 
original tan and newer gray layers of 
stucco. 25 X magnification. 



145 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

5.2.12 Polarized Light Microscopy 

Polarized light aids in the identification of minerals by their different crystalline 
shapes, indices of refractions and configurations. Most of the studies published rely on 
optical microscopy of disperse or thin sections for petrographical and mineralogical 
characterization of the constituents, the different mineral phases in the paste and the 
relationship between binder and aggregate. 

Several representative disperse samples were prepared from each of the stucco color 
groups to identify aggregate minerals. For most of the samples, the fractions for Sieve 
4 and Sieve 5, 300 ^m & 150 |im, were used, as these fractions tended to contain the 
most non-quartz aggregate for most of the samples. For Tombs #09, 200 and 600, 
disperse samples were also prepared of the fines and these samples were also analyzed 
by XRD. The samples were dispersed on a glass slide using a needle, while viewing the 
dispersion under a student microscope. Once the dispersion was suitable, a round glass 
cover slip was gently laid over the sample and several drops of melted resin (refractive 
index of 1 .66) were touched to the side of the cover slip. Capillary action pulled the 
resin under the slip to secure the sample. 

Polarized light microscopy allows observation with transmitted plane polarized light 
and cross-polarized light provided by a quartz halogen light source. The light rays are 

146 Atiafysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

"polarized" or brought into the same propagation direction by the condenser below the 
sample. The analyzer contains the second polarizing filter. When engaged, it can be 
used to look at samples with the poles crossed perpendicularly, or slightly off-crossed. 
Under the crossed poles, the only light and colors visible will be those that the sample 
allows through based on refractive index and birefringence. The different crystalline 
phases of inorganic materials can be identified by their refi'active index, amount of 
birefringence, color, crystal size, fractures and shapes. Determining these properties 
allows identification using resources such as the McCrone Particle Atlas.^^^ 

For each sample analyzed, the Becke Line was determined for selected particles. A 
faint halo can be seen around particles under plain polar light. As the fine focus is 
turned slightly forward, and the sample loses focus, the halo moves in the direction of 
the higher refi'active index. Since the disperse samples are embedded in a medium 
with a refractive index of 1.66, it can be determined whether the sample is above or 
below 1 .66. The sample was then viewed under cross-polarized light and the 
birefringence of the different particles was noted, as were any differences in the type of 
extinction. 



Walter C. McCrone and John Gustav Delly, The Particle Atlas, Vol. I Instrumentation & 
Techniques (Ann Arbor: Ann Arbor Science Publishers. 1973). The same information has been 
incorporated into a searchable CDRom published as The Partical Atlas Electronic Edition (PAE2), 
copyright 1992 by MicroDataware.. 

147 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Fig. 5.36 Tomb #89. Particle size from 150- 
SOOfim, Transmitted - plain polarized light. 
25 X Magnification. 



Fig. 5.37 Tomb #89, Particle size from 150- 
SOOfim. Transmitted ~ crossed polarized light. 
Primarily quartz, seen here as highlv bi- 
refringent. 25 x Magnification.. 



Using this information collected on several of the aggregate particles of interest, the 
Particle Atlas was consuhed. The Particle Atlas confirmed the overwhelming 
presence of highly refractive quartz, seen above in the comparing plain polarized vs. 
cross polarized transmitted light. The Particle Atlas was very not useful in 
determining the small colored aggregate particles. 

For one of the tombs. Tomb #09, a thin section slide was prepared to investigate the 
total system of brick and stucco layers. A large fragment of stucco containing a piece 
of brick substrate was marked for cutting and sent to an external service for thin section 
preparation. The slide was cut thin enough so that it could be viewed under transmitted 
polarized light. The slide was stained on one half with alizarin red which highlights any 
calcite in the sample. 



148 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Fig. 5.38 Block of embedded sample showing 

orange colored brick (a), the original Tan stucco 

layer(b) and the cement coating (c). The blue 

polymer used for embedding is forced through the 

pores and will show up in the thin section. This 

enables easy identification of pore vs. matrix vs. 

aggregate. 

In Tomb # 09, there is delamination between the 

stucco layers evident, as can be seen in this 

sample. 

1.5x magnification. 

Gray (c) 

an to Gray Interface 

Yiginal Tan (b) 

rick (a) 



On the following page, photomicrographs of the original Tan group stucco are 
compared to those of the Gray group stucco. On the left can be seen a clear indication 
of calcite present through the staining fi-om Alazarin Red on the left sides of both 
images. The right images show the same portion of the cross-section under cross 
polarized light. The predominant aggregate in each sample is quartz, however, grain 
size and shape is quite different. 



149 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Fig. 5.39 Thin section of Tomb #09, Tan layer 
Transmitted, plain polarized light, 12.5 x magn 



Fig. 5.40 Thin section of Tomb #09, Tan layer 
Transmitted cross polarized light, 12.5 x magn. 




Fig. 5.41 Thin section of Tomb #09, Gray layer 
Transmitted, plain polarized light, 12.5 x magn. 



Fig. 5.42 Thin section of Tomb #09, Gray layer 
Transmitted cross polarized light, 12.5 x magn. 



150 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

5.2.13 Advanced Instmmental Analysis 

Several samples were selected for advanced testing at the Laboratory for Research on 
Structural Matter. '^^ It was hoped that hydraulic lime could be identified as a 
component in the tan stuccos (Tomb # 09 and 600) and that moisture driven damage 
products between layers could be detected. Research has been conducted on cement 
vs. hydraulic lime vs. Ume and has developed several key identification aids. Lime 
stucco should be primarily of calcite (CaCOa) or dolomite (MgCOs). Cements should 
be dominated by the hydraulic component C3S (tricalcium silicate), while hydraulic 
lime should contain predominantly C2S (dicalcium silicate) in addition to calcite 
(CaCOs). Damaging salts from sulfate attack in cement such as ettringite 
(C3A-3CaS04-32H20), tobermite (CasSieCO, OF, F)i8-5H20) or thaumasite 
(CaC03'CaS04*CaSi03-15H20) might be detectable, and the cement crystalline phases 
should be visible under SEM. 

5.2.14 Scanning Electron Microscopy, EDS 

Most of the research studies on historic mortars in the attached bibliography include 
SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) in their analysis, often coupled with EDX/EDS 
(energy dispersive X-Ray micro-analysis), to examine the micro-structure of the mortar 



Jim Ferris conducted and explained the significance of the SEM and EDS tests. Bill Romonow 
conducted and analyzed the findings in XRD and Andrew McGhie conducted and analyzed the 
TGA/DTA scans. 

151 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



and study the interface between components in very high magnification. Callebut, et. 
al. used SEM in backscatter mode (BSE) on polished cross-sections to identify the 
different hydrauhc phases in a mortar from St. Michael's Church in Leuven, Belgium. 
EDX was used to quantify the different atomic ratios of each of these phases.''^ 
Riccardi, et.al. used optical microscopy in the characterization of mortar samples into 
groups for analysis, followed by SEM and EDX. Their images clearly show dicalcium 
silicate (belite) and tricalcium silicate (alite), both well known cement phases, and the 
needle-like prismatic hexagonal crystals of ettringite.'"" 

Scanning Electron Microscopy, or SEM, is useful to determine the micro-morphology 
of materials under study. A highly focused beam of electrons irradiates the surface of a 
sample, exciting the molecules of the material, which give up secondary electrons. 
These are collected and computer manipulated to create a black and white image made 
up of the point-by-point energy signals, resuhing in very clear images of the sample 
topography. At high magnifications, clear images of the crystalline shapes can be seen. 
The SEM depth of field is much greater when compared to light microscopy. The 
beam of electrons is able to pass through the sample, revealing much more of a 3- 
dimensional sample than is possible with a light wave, the source in the polarized light 
microscopes discussed above. For building materials like stone, mortars and stucco. 



'* Callebaut et al., 397-403. 
' M.P. Riccardi et. al.. "Thennal. Microscopic and X-Ray Diffiaction Studies on Some Ancient 
Mortars." Thermochtmica Acta 321 (1998): 207-214. 



152 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

this allows the porosity and the inter-relationship of crystals and the cementatious 
binding materials to be seen. An experienced user can recognize the crystal shapes and 
sizes as specific compounds, or as stages of their crystalline development. 



For this research, three stucco samples from the St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 project were 
mounted for study. The samples were affixed to a metal "stub" using carbon coated 

double-stick tape. As the samples were 
bulky, they were further held in place 
with putty. The putty and sample bases 
were then painted with silver paint. The 
carbon tape and the silver paint 
provided a route for the extraneous 
primary electrons to dissipate away 
from the sample. 




Fi<i. 5.43 Stucco samples mounted for S/l\f 
analysis. 



The samples were placed in a vacuum evaporation chamber (Dentron Vacuum DV- 
502A) and a frill vacuum was pulled for about 10 minutes, and a very thin (500 A) layer 
of carbon was vapor deposited onto the samples. The carbon also served the purpose 
to draw extraneous primary electrons off the sample so that the secondary electrons 
emitted from the sample made up the image with minimal noise from the primary 
electrons from the beam. The samples were analyzed on a scanning electron 



153 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

microscope (SEM) from Princeton Gamma Tech that can scan up to 300,000 times 
magnification. These samples, however, were only scanned up to 1000 times magnification. 



The test samples were placed on a small platform in the SEM by inserting them 
through a vacuum seal. This platform could be positioned, turned and tihed so that the 
sample was viewed at many levels during the test. The electron beam created a 6,000 
to 6,500 voh field across a metal filament. This beam scanned the sample at a speed of 
1 Hz and while scanning, one CRT showed the actual image produced by the electron 
emissions, while a second CRT showed the computer enhanced view that constantly 
averaged 8 separate scans and removed "noise" for a clearer image with better 
resolution. The images in Figures 5.44 and 5.45 show a comparison at 250 times 
magnification of the original Tan layer and the newer Gray layer on Tomb #600. 















'/■^.u 



ism 



A.)3- 






Fig. 5.44 Tomb 
#600, Tan Stucco 
Layer, 250 x 
Note the porous 
open nature of the 
matrix. 

The 100 micron 
scale at the bottom 
right provides a size 
perspective for the 
fines in the matrix. 



f?jt*:/-^.^j»>;i^'< 



tV^ 



J54 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Fig. 5.45 Tomb U600, 
Gray Stucco Layer, 
25dx 

The paste matrix is 
less porous. Expansive 
acicular (needle-like) 
crystals can just barely 
be seen in some of the 
pores. 



The more porous nature of the Tan layer can be seen clearly. In several of the pores of 
the Gray layer, it is possible to see the expansive needle-like cement crystals developed 
during hydration. Figure 5.46 shows a different section of the Gray layer with a quartz 
crystal on the left and a larger pore filled with the acicular (needle-like) crystals fi-om 
the cement on the right. Small micro-cracks can be seen. Figure 5.47 shows the same 
pore at 1000 times magnification. 



755 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 




Fig. 5.46 Tomb 
#600, Gray Stucco 
Layer, 250 x 
A crystal of quartz 
(a) on the left and an 
open pore with 
cement acicular 
crystals (b) on the 
right. 



Fig. 5.47 Tomb #600. 
Gray Stucco Layer, 

lodox 

The same open pore at 
higher magnification. 



156 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



The next series of SEM images focuses on the interface between the Dark Tan and 
Gray layers of Tomb #200. In the first image at 100 times magnification, micro- 
cracking at several places along the bond can be seen. The earlier Dark Tan layer is at 
the top of the image and the newer gray layer is at the bottom. Close to the interface 
between the two materials, a pore in the Tan layer shows re-crystallized calcite. This 
can occur if the tan layer is kept wet near its surface by the Gray layer. When wet, the 
calcite fi"om smaller pores slowly goes into solution and moves towards the surface, re- 
crystallizing once the water dries out in the larger pore. 



Fig. 5.48 Tomb 
#200, Interface 
between Dark Tan 
(top) and Gray 
(bottom) Stucco 
Layers, lOOx. Note 
cracks and air 
spaces at the 
interface. 




157 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 







^M 


,^ .^ - '^' ''''■" 


ZJ^'-* '"^' 


K.^; -•" ■. ---"""S 



F/g. 5.49 Tomb 
#200. Interface 
between Dark Tan 
(top) and Gray 
(bottom) Stucco 
Layers, 250x Note 
pores with re- 
crvstallized calcite. 




Fig. 5.50 Tomb 

#200. 

A highly magnified 

view of a pore with 

re-crystallized 

calcite. 

characterized by 

soft, rounded 

crystals. 

JOOOx. 



J58 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

5,2. 1 5 X-Ray Diffraction Analysis 

X-Ray Diffraction, or XRD, is a useful analytical tool for composition of crystalline 
materials. The wave-lengths of X-rays are similar in length to the distances between 
the atoms of a crystalline compound, so the angles of the diffractions of the X-rays can 
be used to identify the diffraction patterns of different crystalline materials in a sample. 
The Ragaku Geigerflex Diffractometer at LRSM uses copper for radiation with a 
known wavelength of 1 .54 A. Graphs are produced that show 20, 2 times the incident 
angle for the X-Rays, or the d-spacing, which is the inter-planar spacing in the crystal. 
Years of work in XRD have enabled scientists to develop thousands of "pdf s", or 
powder diffraction files, for known compounds. These "knowns" can be compared to 
the results from the sample, and identification of specific compounds can be made. 

Aggregate and fines from the gravimetric analysis are often analyzed in XRD to 
identify and characterize the mineralogical phases. Sabbioni, et. al. used XRD to 
characterize the aggregate fractions, examine the damaged material found in the mortar 
and "identify tracers of natural pozzolans (feldspathoids; leucite, analcite, nepheline; 
and pyroxenes; augite and diopside."'"*^ The problem with XRD is that the phases of 
interest are usually swamped by an overwhelming presence of calcium carbonate in the 
binder, and if the binder is not separated from the aggregate, the results will show an 



'*' C. Sabbioni. et al.. "Atmospheric Deterioration of Ancient and Modem Hydraubc Mortars." 
Atmospheric Environment 35 (2001):540. 

J 59 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

even larger proportion of Si02, because of the prevalence of quartz. With XRD, it is 
also difficult to analyze compounds that make up less than 5% of the whole.''*'' 

Since most samples contain a few major components and many minor ones, the results 
from the XRD test can indicate the "possibility" of many exotic compounds and similar 
appearing scans can be confusing. (See Appendix B for sample scans.) There are 
computer tools to assist in the search for matches, but even with the highly powered 
computers, the user must make informed choices on which peaks to analyze and which 
"possibles" to delete from the analysis. To identify complex mixtures of compounds in 
cements and many treatments, experience in the science of the materials is critical. 

Stucco layers were tested during two sessions. In the first session, those selected were 
prepared directly from samples of stucco and there was no attempt to reduce the 
amount of aggregate. During the second session, those tested were the separated fines 
from the 8 stucco materials of interest. This set of samples included 3 controls; a 
stucco binder of cured lime putty, one of cured Riverton hydrated hydraulic lime and 
one made of 1 : 1 lime putty and Portland cement. These samples were prepared at least 
8 years ago, so should have been fiilly cured. '"^^ 



Elizabeth Coins. "A New Protocol for the Analysis of Historic Cementitious Materials: Interim 
Report." International RlLEhl Workshop on Historic Mortars: Characteristics and Tests, Paisley, 
Scotland }2"'-14"'May 1999. P. Bartos. ed. (Cachan. France: RILEM Publications. 2000): 74. 
''" These samples came from the Building Materials Library, samples in the Architectural 
Conservation Laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania. They were made under the direction of F.G. 
Matero. 

160 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Each sample was finely ground to a 
powder. The XRD analyzes 
compounds, not crystal shape, so 
breaking the larger crystals was 
required. A slurry with acetone was 
spread onto the ground portion of a 
glass slide. The acetone was driven off 

Fi^. 5.51 Sample preparation for XRD. 

and the test slide was inserted vertically into the XRD chamber, a Ragaku Geigerflex 
Diflfractometer operating with a horizontal scan. The samples were scanned at 2° per 
minute in the range of 5° to 60°. 

After each scan, the peaks of interest were marked and analyzed by a computer 
program that compares thousands of pdf s (powder diffraction files) to the sample scan. 
Each compound could have multiple peaks, so "possibles" were chosen that would 
match up with all, or a majority, of the peaks that should exist for a given compound. 



161 



Atialysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



HSPV 09-Oe TAN JP 



09-08 



l-^rkSp^ff^M^ 



5. 10. 15. M. 25. 30. 35. m. 45. 50. S. 60 



HSPV 09-07 SBEY JP 



09-07 



rTrf7,- , ^,:tv ., '7 i H d 




:l;fr1^7t^ffrffHsia; 



5 10. 15. M. 25. 30. 35. 40. 45. 50. SB. H. 

zzoasa.HAM 



HSPV 1200-OB JP 



1200-08 



' I'l |i|iti|r^|i|i|^i|i (l^ i|>> |i ^ |i|i| fj |i | I |i JCT ifi | i| i| i|i|i|l< i >ip 



5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30. 35. 40. 



50. 55. 60. 



Fig. 5.52 The 2 top scans are for Tomb #09. The Tan layer is on the left and the Gray lover is on the 
right The bottom scan is for the IfTiite Stucco on Tomb #1200, the early wall vault. The strong peak at 
around 27 is the main indicator for SiO:, although several of the smaller peaks also make up the 
fingerprint. The peak just before 30 is the main peak for CaCOs. Stucco 1200-08 was primarily CaCOi, 
as expected. 



Each of the samples was first caHbrated on siHcon dioxide or calcium carbonate, as 
compounds that were known to exist in the sample. The process to determine the 
remaining components was one of elimination. As each component was chosen as being 
part of the scan, the peaks were eliminated and the program reported the remaining portion 
of the scan to be identified. While not a quantitative method of analysis, these reported 
percentages gave an indication of the ratio of the different components. 



J62 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

The table below shows the compounds identified for the samples tested, and the 

percent of the scan attributed to that compound. Calcium carbonate includes 

indications for both calcite and aragonite, two different crystalline forms of CaCOs. 

The category "Silicates" includes gismondine (CaAl2Si208-4H20), larnite (Ca2Si04), 

ettringite (Ca6Ali2(S04)3(OH)i2 • 26H2O) and andradite (Ca3Fe2(Si04)3, or calcium iron 

silicate hydroxide). Samples from the first series of tests are marked with "++" for 

major components, and "+" for a small component. 

Table 7 
XRD Results of Stucco Samples 



Sample 


Quartz 


CaCOa 


Silicates 


CaO, CaOH 


200-03, White 


+ 


-H- 






200-01, Gray 


++ 


-H- 






09-08, Tan 


42% 


45.3% 


2 


4% 


09-07, Gray 


56% 


30% 


5 




600-02, Tan 


31% 


64.5% 






600-05, Gray 


51% 


33% 


4% 




1200-01, White 


4% 


93% 






Lime Putty Control 


6 


49% 


3 


36% 


Hydraulic Lime 




79% 


13% 




ILime; IPortland 


29% 


32.2% 


32.2% 





During the first test run of sample 09-07, Gray, ettringite was detected. It was not 
detected in the second scan of the fines. It was concluded that since ettringite is a 
damage resuh, generally occurring in cements exposed to moisture driven sulfate 



163 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



damage, the ettringite most likely was attached to larger particles of binder and 
aggregate that were sieved out of the second sample. In the first test, samples of the 
stucco matrix and aggregate were finely ground, leaving the ettringite in the powder 
form used for XRD analysis. 

In the sample chart above, the two samples fi-om the White stucco group, 200-03 and 
1200-01 are primarily calcium carbonate with a small fraction of quartz. The 09-08, 
Tan contains silicates and calcium oxide, good indicators that this stucco layer may 
contain hydraulic lime. The hydraulic lime control contains lamite (Ca2Si04), a 
dicalcium silicate expected to be found in hydraulic lime, but not in cement. The 
ettringite in 09-07 and the calcium silicate (CasSiOs) found in the 1 -Lime: 1 -PC control 
are tricalcium silicates expected to be found in cement. The Gray layer for Tomb #600 
did not show cement components, however, they may have been smaller than 5%. 
Only 88% of the peaks were accounted for in the analysis, so the remaining mixture 
could have been multiple C3S components, each less than 5%. The small amounts of 
unresolved peaks in each of the samples are those that would contain the small 
impurities of iron, and other colorful minerals that cause the binders to differ fi-om each 
other in color 



164 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

5.2.16 Thermal Gravimetry, Differential Thermal Analysis 

Since the use of thermal analysis is so prevalent in the study of cement chemistry, there 
are good reasons to exploit this tool for the study of lime and hydraulic lime mortars. 
TGA/DTA can be used to examine crystalline transitions (endothermic and 
exothermic) and thermal transformations, such as dehydration, dehydroxylation, 
oxidation and decomposition. However, there are no existing standards for historic 
materials at this time. Paama, et. al. concluded: "The interpretation of the thermal 
decomposition of mortars is generally difficult because of a great variety of 
components used, which depends on country, source of binding and inert materials and 
on the age of buildings."'"*^ Charola and Henriques said: "it is clear that the 
identification of the hydraulic phases formed, ... is very difficuU. This can be 
attributed to the variability of composition of pozzolanic materials, the conditions of 
the pozzolans-lime-water reaction than the rapid loss of water during the setting of the 
mortar resulting in very small sized reaction products. This compounds the already 
difficult characterization given their low concentration in lime mortar."''*^ 

The group that has recently published the most research of historic materials utilizing 
thermal analysis is led by Moropoulou, and each article includes contributing 



Lilli Paama. et al.. "Thermal and Infrared Spectroscopic Characterization of Historical Mortars." 
Thermochimica Acta 320 (199%): 127. 

'"^ A. Elena Charola and Fernando M.A. Henriques. "Hydrauhcity in Lime Mortars Revisited."" 
International RILEAf Workshop on Historic Mortars: Characteristics and Tests, Paisley, Scotland 12"'- 
14"' May 1999. (Cachan, France: RILEM Publications, 2000): 101. 

165 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

researchers from a wide variety of European research institutes. In their article on the 
characterization of ancient mortars, they describe key identification peaks that separate 
lime from hydraulic lime from cement mortars and state: "Generally, the CO2 bound to 
carbonates and the water bound to hydraulic components (in weight loss %) discern 
two groups of mortars, the typical lime and the hydraulic, respectively." 

Thermal analysis run in the TGA, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis mode measures the 
weight loss of the sample as the temperature is raised at a consistent rate per time. In 
rare cases, there can be a weight gain, as in the example of heating the sample in an 
oxygen atmosphere. A weight loss (gain) curve is plotted as weight over time. An 
abrupt change in the slope indicates a phase change. 

This same unit at LSRM also analyzes samples in the DTA, Differential Thermal 
Analysis mode, where the sample cup and an identical reference cup have small 
thermocouples attached. During the test, the temperature by voltage difference is 
measured. If there were no differences, the line would be flat. Peaks above the line 
indicate an exothermic phase change and peaks that dip below the line show an 
endothermic change. The area of the portion of the curve that deviates from the flat 
line can be calculated for a quantitative method to analyze the component. 



'""^ A. Moropoulou et. al. "Characterization of Ancient. Byzantine and Later Historic Mortars by 
Thermal and X-Ray Dif&acUon Techniques."" Thermochimica Acta 269/270 (1995): 781. 



166 Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

The fines fi"om 4 samples representing the Tan and Gray layers of Tombs # 9 and 600 
and 3 controls (stucco with binders of hydrated lime, lime putty and 1 lime to 1 
Portland cement) were finely ground and 1 5 mg were used for each test. The tests 
were run in an argon atmosphere at 20°C per minute to 1000°C. The resultant curves 
do not match the findings of Moropoulou, et. al., even for the one sample that was run 
in air to attempt to match their conditions. However, the results of the samples are 
informative when compared to the control samples. 



Sample 1 lime putty/3 sand(S24) TPA-nTA 
Size: 13 5785 rig ' '-^" LJ ' " 

Method SotolOOO 
Comment 20o/nin to IOOO0C in Ar 

\ 10- 



File: D:\TA\SDT\DATA\042602 0) 

Operator ARM 

Run Date: 26-Apr-02 11 04 




805 le'C \— (- 
62 98X 



400 600 

Temperature (*C) 



800 1000 

Universal VI 106 TA Instri^ents 



Fig. 5.53 The lime putty control sample. 

The Moropoulou, et. al. work indicated that in a lime based mortar, no strong reaction 
should be expected except the release of chemically bound water around 800°C, and 



767 



Atialvsis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

that the release of bound clays in hydraulic lime and cement would take place around 
200-250°C. All samples in this research showed the gradual release of absorbed water 
before reaching 100°C and showed the release of bound water in the calcium carbonate 
between 720 and 760°C. The lime putty control experienced a strong exothermic 
reaction around 400°C, a reaction McGhie identified as an indication of CaCOs in the 
sample. The hydraulic lime also showed slight indication of a reaction before 400°C 
and the 1 lime to 1 Portland cement experienced a strong reaction in the same region. 



Sample lRhH/3S23 fines 

Size 10 42]< ng 

Method 2oto1000 
Comment 20o/min to lOOOoC in ^^ 
100 



TRA-DTA ''''* D \TA\S0T\DATA\042602 02 
I un U I n Operator ARM 

Run Date 26-Apr-02 1339 




Fig. 5.54 The Riverton hydrated hydraulic lime control. 



168 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Sample 09-08 or 1 g fines 

Size 1? 3607 mg 

Method SotolOOO 

Comment 20o/min to lOOOoC in Ar 
1 10-1 



TRA-DTA '^''' D \TA\SDT\DATA\0<2402 

un VJ I rv Operator ARM 

Hun Date 24-Apr-02 16 06 




769 39°C 74 45X 



Fig. 5.55 Sample 09-08, from the original Tan layer. This cun'e is similar to the 
hydraulic lime curve. 



When the Tan layers of Tomb #09 and 600 were compared to the controls, they both 
experienced exothermic reactions around 840°C, an area in which none of the controls 
had reactions. They both experienced only the slightest reaction around 370°C and 
appear most like the curves seen for the hydraulic lime control. The graph for the Gray 
layer sample for Tomb 09 is inconclusive, as it showed no strong peaks of reaction to 
indicate that it was a cement or a hydraulic lime. The sample of 600-Gray released a 
large quantity of bound water at 90°C, probably indicating a hydrated compound, such 
as one of the hydrated silicates. An acid digested sample of 600-Gray had been tested 



169 



Atialvsis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 



earlier and the curve showed the same release, without any CaCOs reactions around 
400 or SOOT, since the CaCOs would have all been removed. 



Sample 600-01 Cenent fines 
Size: 14 156< mg 
Method 2oto1000 

Comment 20o/niin to lOOOoC in Ar 
105n 



TGA-DTA """• \TA\SDT\DATA\042502 01 
Operator ARM 
Run Date: 25-Apr-02 09 20 




400 600 

Temperature {°C) 



800 1 000 

Universal VI lOB TA Instruments 



Fig. 5.56 The 600 Gray layer shows an exothermic reaction before 100 °C, which 
does not show on the I Lime: 1 Portland control. (See Appendix Bfor all scans.) 



Without a stronger library of historic samples and related TGA-DTA curves, it is 
difficult to make definitive statements about what can be proven from these graphs. 
The most obvious conclusion is that the original Tan layers appear to have hydraulic 
components and that the cement layers differed in their mix ratios of cement, lime and 
other additives. 



170 



Atialysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



•amo:* St Loois Stxcco 1600-02 
Size 9 ^8<5< «»« 

Caa«*r>t 20o/i»l" to 'aOOwC i" »r 



^GA J 



> Ir : \'*\S0T\0*t»\O31i(W 03 

Opfalor ARM 

Run DltC 1S-Mar-a3 lb l« 



« «J 




F/g. 5.57 Digested fines from 600'Gray layer. No CaCO} reactions show around 400 or 760°C. 
The release of bound water around 1 00 °C represents the presence of a hydrated compound. The 
alpha to beta transition of quartz can be seen around 573° C. 



5.2. 17 Laboratory Analysis - Observations and Conclusions 

The phased approach of analytical testing conducted for this research has effectively 
reduced a very large sample set of 700 composite tomb structures of mortar, stucco and 
brick into a manageable number of groups for which we can state several conclusions. 



J 71 



Analysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

The mortar is the weakest material and the material most prone to dissolve. During 
sampling, it was difficuh to find samples that did not already show some advanced 
level of degradation. Under visual characterization the mortar samples were soft, 
fi'agile and easy to break. In the total immersion test the mortar samples absorbed 22% 
of their weight in water, and all exhibited some level of dissolution. The samples were 
too weak to subject to the WVT, capillary absorption or drying rate tests that were used 
for stucco and brick. Gravimetric analysis showed the mortars to have a significantly 
higher amount of fines and visually, the reddish fines appeared to be of clay and silt. A 
few of the mortar samples (8) did not flilly digest with HCl, and the coating which did 
not react to HCL in later testing, warrants further investigation. 

In test of the 4 stucco color groups, the order of absorption capability, porosity, 
capillary absorptive pull and drying ability generally progressed in the same order as 
the aggressiveness of acid digestion. The most heavily lime based group (White) was 
the most absorptive and most easily digested, and the cement based (Gray) group the 
least. The exception was in the water vapor transmission results, where the White 
group's high absorptive capability actually seemed to slow down its ability to transmit 
moisture in the vapor form. 

The aggregate in the stucco groups were all well-graded, and the degree of sub- 
angularity increased fi^om White to Tan to Dark Tan to Gray, an indication that more 

/ 72 Afialysis & Characterization 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



pre-mixed, non-local hydraulic components were added. Both XRD and TGA-DTA 
testing also indicated the probable presence of hydraulic lime (natural cement) in the 
early stuccos. SEM was useful to provide visual proof of the damage at the interface 
between materials and to show the expansive nature of the development of acicular 
(needle-like) cement damage product crystals. 

Visual characterization of brick samples confirmed that the brick at St. Louis Cemetery 
No. 1 is almost exclusively the local hand-made River or Lake brick. Both are soft and 
porous with the River brick being the softest, and exhibiting the most dissolution 
during the total immersion test. The brick types are both quite absorptive with strong 
initial capillary pull, and both exhibit a high capability to transmit moisture. Where the 
bricks have been exposed, there is evidence of weathering. However, loss of the outer 
layers of brick by weathering, sah or fi-eeze-thaw damage is not the problem at this site. 
Tests for salt presence found almost no salt evidence at the brick interface. Instead, the 
structural problem exhibited by the brick construction is caused by movement of brick 
slipping through areas of mortar loss. Once the original structure moves, the shifts in 
load and weight create shear tension, which leads to cracking throughout the structure. 



173 Analysis & Characterization 



6.0 TOMB DECAY MODELS & SCENARIOS 



6.1 Tomb Decay Mechanisms Confirmed 



Based on the results from this research, many of the deterioration results seen in the 
masonry at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 can be explained by the decay mechanisms 
discussed in Chapter 4. The local environment and site conditions provide 
considerable quantities of water from driven rain, high levels of ground moisture and 
condensation from the high relative humidity. The brick, mortar and stucco materials were 
all porous. Based on composition and porosity, they absorbed and de-sorbed moisture at 
different rates. Table 8 contains the summary data for all moisture related tests made of 
stucco discs and brick cubes, and the Msat average from the total immersion test of the 
mortar samples. These results will be referenced in the following discussion. 




/ 74 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



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MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

6.1.1 Brick 

The most powerful moisture absorber is the brick wall. The River bricks can hold 
about 24% of their weight in water through capillary absorption. Their capillary 
absorption coefficient, indicators of the capillary, or sucking power, is the highest of all 
materials tested at 0.0471 g/cm^ sec" ^ The Lake bricks are also quite capable of 
absorbing large quantities of water and averaged 18.2% imbibition capacity with a 
capillary absorption coefficient of 0.0341 g/cm^ sec"^. Even if these brick walls were 
totally covered in impervious outer coatings, the high ground water in St. Louis 
Cemetery No. 1 would be the major source for capillary absorption. Water at the base, 
high capillary absorption coefficients and small, variable capillaries in the handmade 
bricks set up a condition that allow the brick wall to fully load with water to the 
imbibition capacity at numerous times throughout the year. 

When tested in an exposed (bare) condition, the River bricks have the lowest critical 
moisture content and can easily de-sorb most of the moisture through evaporation to 
the dryer air once humidity levels fell. Many have good rates of evaporation until the 
last 10% of moisture remains. When tested with a layer of stucco still attached, the 
curves became more complicated and evaporation slowed down when about 50% of the 
moisture had evaporated. In comparison, the Lake bricks had good rates of 
evaporation for the first 55% of moisture before slowing down. With a layer of stucco 

1 76 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



still attached, they slowed down sooner, after only about 38% of the moisture was 
gone. These results illustrate how the difference in porosity between brick types 
affects the basic properties of moisture movement and how easy it is to impede a 
material's ability to dry through evaporation, once an outer coating is applied. 

In spite of the reduction in evaporation, the traditional practice of coating the bricks 
was not the wrong approach, based on the soft nature of the bricks and the high levels 
of available moisture. By remaining covered, the bricks remain in a damp condition, 
are protected fi-om wind abrasion and thermal cycling, do not cycle through wet and 
dry phases and do not experience dissolution and re-crystallization of salts. Since there 
is seldom fi-ost in New Orleans, the bricks also do not normally experience damage 
fi-om crystallization of the absorbed water. Minimal salt damage had been seen in the 
historic materials, and the tested brick solutions showed negligible salt presence. 
These factors are key explanations to how well the interior bricks have performed at St. 
Louis Cemetery No. 1 when protected. 

6.1.2 Mortar 

The mortar joints are capable of holding the same moisture content on average as held 
by the bricks. The samples tested in this research had an average moisture content at 
saturation of over 25%. In all tombs tested, the tomb mortar absorbed greater amounts 



1 77 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



and at a greater initial slope than did the stucco layers from the tomb. The mortar was 
not strong enough to hold up through the capillary absorption and drying rate tests that 
were conducted on the bricks and stucco. However, based on the resuhs of the mortar 
analysis, it is not expected that the mortar would have a low critical moisture content 
value because of the high proportion of water reactive clays and silt. Since there is no 
atmospheric exposure, the mortar plays no role in moving moisture away from the 
interior system. Since the mortar is surrounded by wet bricks, it can remain at 
imbibition capacity as long as the bricks are wet. The mortar tested was weak, the 
aggregate was heavily skewed to the smallest fractions and the fines proportion was 
more than double that of any of the stucco groups. The fines appeared to contain a 
large proportion of silt and clay. This would not create a problem if the tomb surfaces 
were fully protected by a tight, permeable stucco skin to allow the mortar to dry slowly 
without any new incursions of external moisture. 

The areas of mortar decay can be described by the following mechanism. In the 
environment of 100% humidity, any extra moisture that comes into the system soaks 
around the mortar in liquid form, and the slightly acidic water sets up dissolving 
reactions with the carbonates in the crushed shell and the weaker silicates. The raw 
clay particles are very absorbent, holding water between the many plates that defines 
the clay structure. The clay expands, creating internal stresses in the mortar paste, and 
eventually this stress breaks down the mortar. As the mortar breaks down, the 



1 78 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



adhesion to the brick and stucco layers also breaks, creating interior channels for non- 
uniform liquid water transport. Open gaps develop between bricks and this loss of 
support allows them to slip out of position. Over time, this slippage causes stucco 
layers to crack and/or built up internal shear stresses that led to structural damage, such 
as comer failures, lost bricks and severe telescoping. 

6.1.3 Stucco 

There were many bulk stucco mixes used at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1. Five loosely 
defined groups based on color and initial total immersion results were used for 
characterization in this research. However, in every test, exceptions within the group 
stood out, and one major conclusion that can be made is that there were no one or two 
accepted stucco mixes used in the building of these tombs. A few remnants existed of 
the earliest practice of shell-lime stucco in areas of the wall vauhs and on a few tombs. 
Most of the early stucco appears to be the sandy tan colored stucco, the Tan group, and 
results from mortar analysis, XRD and TGA indicated that many of these may contain 
hydraulic components. The darker, less porous Dark Tan group also showed indications 
of mixtures with hydraulic lime (natural cements). The mid-twentieth century additions 
of cement layers. Gray group, on top of original materials have not performed well in 
terms of overall protection. 



/ 79 Tomb Decay Models <S: Scenarios 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



With the exception of the White group, the stucco materials do not approach the 
absorption behavior of the interior bricks and mortar. The most important role of the 
stucco layer is to protect the interior materials from exterior sahs and pollutants and to 
ensure that no water in liquid form is allowed access through the walls. This research 
would suggest that protection of the mortar joints is an even more important objective, 
than is protection of the brick, given the high clay content of the mortars. 

Based on the results, all but the White group of stucco worked well to resist easy 
saturation from a quick rain storm or period of high humidity, holding from 9 to 12.2% 
of their weight in moisture. Added surface finish, if in good condition, frirther inhibits 
surface wetting of the stucco layer. Although tombs with impermeable finishes have 
severely reduced water vapor transmission, the tombs with a permeable lime-based 
surface finish had comparable WVT rates. 

The White group is capable of holding the most moisture at almost the same levels as 
found for brick and mortar. It is also the most willing to give up moisture with a 
critical moisture content of only 34% and would be capable of drying quickly. If 
moisture capacity and drying ability alone dictated decay, the White group stucco 
would be most in balance with the interior brick and mortar. However, it also is the 
softest material and breaks easily with internal movement of the brick. Further, it is the 
most acid soluble, and is the most readily attacked by acidic rain and pollution. 



J 80 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

The Tan and Dark Tan groups are more willing to release the moisture, given a dry 
sweep of air over the surface. The capillary absorption coefficients are not high 
enough for these materials to pull moisture from the brick by capillary action. The 
structure will instead dry through the slower diffusion process, with water molecules 
leaving the region of many, to move to a region of few, the air-dried layer of stucco. 
The critical moisture content is around 50%, meaning half of the water de-sorbs rapidly 
and the remaining half needs more energy, such as good air ventilation or heat. These 
conditions can be found at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 . 

The Gray group absorbs less than the earlier Tan and Dark Tan group, but is very 
resistant to drying, with a critical moisture content percent at over 80%. When this 
material is layered over a Tan or Dark Tan group stucco, it effectively inhibits the 
original layer's ability to dry through evaporation and holds the composite system in a 
static damp, lowered strength condition. The water vapor transmission rate is also the 
lowest of the stucco groups, which adds to the resistance the cement exhibits to allow 
interior moisture to diffuse to the exterior. Several of the stucco discs showed salt 
evidence during the absorption and drying cycles and the salt presence tests were most 
positive with the samples from the Gray group. 



181 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



While it was stated above that it might actually be preferable that the soft interior 
bricks are not able to fully dry after each cycle of ground water capillary absorption, 
the failure of the rest of the system is not acceptable. The layers of stucco are only 1 to 
4 cm thick, and when filled with variable levels of moisture, the forces of gravity, 
thermal expansion and hygric expansion all act at different rates depending on the 
material composition and the amount of water. Stresses build up in the thin layers, 
eventually leading to micro-cracks. Micro-cracks act very effectively as capillary 
tubes, pulling in more moisture which sets up greater stress and a fiill crack occurs. The 
fill] crack then directs water, pollutants, biological spores and seeds into the interior to 
cause unit masonry displacement and the breaking down of materials through the many 
processes discussed in Chapter 3, Tomb Decay Mechanisms. 

6.2 Tomb Combinations DIustrated 

The values in Table 8 are more meaningful when seen in several specific tombs where 
all the components interact. The figures in each material will always show the 
imbibition capacity, or Msat fi-om the initial total immersion test, and if there appears a 
number below, it will be the critical moisture content percent. The data for additional 
tomb combinations can be viewed in Appendix C, Summary Data. 



182 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

Tomb #09 can be used to illustrate both the simple composite system of only one 
stucco covering and the complex composite system of multiple stucco layers. Tomb 
#09 is a poor condition platform tomb with a first visible date of 1 822. The original 
stucco is Tan and the brick is River. In this tomb, the mortar is surprisingly low in 
moisture absorption, but is still higher than is the adjacent stucco layer. 




Fig. 6.3 Tomb #09, Platform, First Date - 1822. Fig. 6.4 Tan and Gray stucco layers evident. 



Before the tomb was repaired with a heavy coat of concrete, the wetting and drying 
processes would progress as seen in Figure 6.5. Most of the dampness would enter the 
tomb through rising damp as the bricks absorbed 24.5% of their weight. The mortar 
also had a high initial slope of water absorption and would be able to fill to its capacity 
of 1 1 .36% when surrounded by damp bricks. The stucco, exposed to dry air, would 
initiate the drying process and through diffusion, water molecules would slowly move 
from areas of higher concentrations to lower concentrations in the dry stucco, and then 
out into the exterior dry air. The mortar joint would dry out under most conditions so 

183 Tomb Decay Models (fe Scenarios 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 




Fig. 6.5 Simple composite system, one stucco Fig. 6. 6 Complex composite system, multiple 

layer and surface finish. Tomb #09 data added. stucco layers Tomb #09 data added 

that it did not remain in a wet, dissolving state. The bricks would often remain damp 
and would not fi-equently cycle between the wet and dry states. 



When the layer of concrete was added to the tomb, the moisture movement dynamics 
radically changed. The combination of Tan-Gray stucco had an imbibition capacity of 
8.49% as opposed to the Msat value of 10.65% for the Tan layer alone. The Gray 
layer alone had an imbibition capacity of only 6.25%. If the Gray layer also had a low 
critical moisture content, it would be able to drive the drying process and the low 
imbibition absorption value could be a positive factor. However, the critical moisture 



184 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



content % of 89% means that once the Gray layer lost only 1 1% of its moisture, the 
process stopped, leaving the interior materials damp with the weak mortar placed most 
at risk. The resultant damage has been observed in many tombs when the damaged 
gray cement layers are removed from the earlier brick and stucco beneath. 



The difference in hygric expansion between the Gray and Tan layers are generally not 
enough to cause the major damage. Instead, the salt damage created by the Gray layer 
and the weight of the water held in both layers pulled down by gravity, compounded by 
the internal stresses created by the dissolving mortar joints and moving bricks, create 
the first micro-cracks. These capillary cracks directed more water in liquid phase into 
the interior and creates great non-uniformities in moisture absorption throughout the 
composite system, which leads to 
much larger cracks. 



The strength of the outer concrete is 
such that it holds stresses in 
compression until they become too 
great, and then react through a major 
failure. The adhesion of the Gray 
layer causes the weakest materials to 
break, rather than the Gray layer bond. 




Fig. 6.7 Structural crack in ioinh HU9 
caused by too much strength in the outer 
layer of stucco. 



185 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Fig. 6.8 The back of Tomb #600 covered in 
cement stucco. The front of the tomb is patched 
Note the loss of the cornice with the new cement. 



Fig. 6. 9 Complex composite system, multiple 
stucco lovers. Tomb #600 data added. 



For Tomb #600, no bricks were tested. This tomb has been patched in cement stucco 
and the back of the tomb has been completely recovered in cement. A dripping water 
faucet adds an uneven source for rising damp. The Tan layer has an imbibition capacity 
at 13.44% vs. the composite Tan-Gray layer at 10.93%, and the drying process would slow 
down at 33% in the Tan layer alone vs. at 87% in the combination of layers. The Gray 
layer will inhibit the drying process of the interior materials. 

At the patch boundaries, the cement layer will keep the seam wet, allowing more 
movement at the seam caused by recyrstallized calcite, gravity and hygric expansion. 



J 86 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

There will also be more dissolution of materials, and more development and 
accumulation of expansive calcium silicate salts like ettringite at the Gray layer's edge. 
Throughout the site, there were many examples of deterioration around the edges of 
cement patches. Since the strongest material transfers stress to the weakest, the 
damage was usually found in the weaker historical materials of stucco and brick. 




Fig. 6.10 Tomb #558 was originally covered in Tan stucco and has been patched 
with Gray (cement). When the Gray layer failed, it cracked at the interface with the 
original stucco, forcing new cracks into that layer, and tore off the brick faces 
wherever it was directly adhered. In some cases the released stress caused the 
pulling out of the entire brick. The missing bricks in the image above were found on 
the ground about the tomb with the cement stucco still firmly attached. 



18 7 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 




Fig. 6.11 Decay mechanism at edge of incompatible patch. 



6.3 Tomb Decay Scenarios 

Based on the Sun'ey, field observations and material analysis results from this research, 
coupled with historical information on original construction and cultural practices, a set 
of seven scenarios have been developed that highlight the primary decay mechanisms 
that have created the current conditions at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1. Each scenario 
includes multiple images that show how the combination of material, design, methods 
and the environment has created specific conditions. The scenarios were developed to 



J 88 Tomb Decay Models & Scetmhos 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



educate and open dialogues with tomb owners, managers and restoration volunteers on 
the following: 

• How do the decay mechanisms work? 

• How have current conditions developed? 

• How critical is each of the problems? 

• How can the decay mechanisms be arrested, or slowed? 

• How should current conditions be stabilized? 

• How should restored tombs be maintained? 



189 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

6.3. 1 The Well-Maintained Tomb 

In the well-maintained tomb, the tomb owners regularly applied lime wash to protect 
the stucco skin. When small cracks began to develop, they were noticed during the 
frequent attention and were repaired. Eventually, as cracks began to grow larger, the 
decision would have been made to repair or re-stucco areas of the tomb. The family 
caretakers would notice small changes in the tomb as moisture driven movement and 
weathering occurred. These issues would be repaired or stabilized during the regular 
maintenance work before real problems threatened the tomb. Highly vulnerable 

building elements such as roofs may have 
been repaired more often. Roof stucco 
repairs over intact original brickwork is a 
common condition at the site. 




Fig. 6. 12 The stucco skin on Tomb #230 
has been well maintained. A modern 
finish coats the tomb, but has been 
applied over a well-prepared surface 
and shows no peeling or flaking. Some 
biological growth and higher vegetation 
is beginning to take hold and should be 
removed before problems start A high 
integrity tomb on a marble precinct, 
surrounded by a path of grass. 
Studio photograph, March 2001. 



190 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 






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MOnEUNC. OF TOMR DE C A Y AT ST. lOUIS CFMFTFRY NO 1 

6.3.2 Neglected Surface Finishes 

The appHcation of lime washes served to reduce the surface area of the stucco and thus 
reduce initial water absorption, particularly in conditions of falling damp. The surface 
finish also provided a smoother surface less inviting to biological growth and was 
temporarily biocidal, as well. When surface finishes were allowed to deteriorate, 
breaches would develop in the layer, allowing water entry, dirt accumulation and 
biological growth. Such breaches became weak points when a later application of 
surface finish was made, leading to thick, uneven build-up of poorly attached material 
on the stucco surface. Over time, micro-cracks developed in these areas. The micro- 
cracks were of a size that enhanced capillary absorption into the interior stucco 
material. The micro-cracks expanded to larger 
cracks where biological growth took root. With 
time, neglected surface finishes resuhed in a dirty 
tomb with uneven remnants of finish and 
aggressive biological growth and set up the 
conditions for further deterioration through 
moisture driven cracking mechanisms. 



Fig. 6.14 Neglected surface Jiiiislus, 
cracks and biological growth evident 
Studio photograph, March 2001. 




192 Tomb Decay Models & Scetiarios 



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MODEI.JNG OF TOMR DF CA Y AT ST. lOIJJS CFMETFRV NO I 

6.3.3 Deferred Repairs 



All built structures require maintenance. If that maintenance is constantly deferred, 
opportunities are missed to fix small problems before they grow into larger damage 
and compromise the tomb structure. Cracks allow moisture an uneven access to the 
tomb materials. This leads to broken adhesive bonds between stucco, brick and 
mortar, all of which can create more cracking and detachment. Once water is directed 
through a crack into a mortar joint, dissolution of mortar can take place, loosening the 
brick. Typically, damage is first evident at the top of the tomb, where falling damp 
has the greatest impact and the bricks have the least weight above to hold them in 
place. Movements of brick lead to wall instability and more structural cracking and 
the deterioration cycles out of control 
until the tomb becomes a ruin. 



Fig. 6. 16 Tomb #39, an 
example of years of 
deferred repairs. Periodic 
patching with cement and 
modern paint over the 
failing structure has 
provided no benefit. 




194 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



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MODKIING OF TOMR DE C AY AT ST. JOIJJS CEMETERY NO 1 

6.3.4 The Unwelcome "Garden" 



Section 3.4.3 discusses the cycle of biological growth from simple to complex 
organisms which are illustrated in this scenario. The high heat, humidity and rainfall 
in New Orleans create a long growing season. A solid stucco skin is the best defense 
against the invasion of higher vegetation and the structural damage that plants and root 
systems create. Once cracks are allowed to develop, growth and destruction will 
begin. Root systems can progress deep into a tomb seeking nutrients from the clay- 
lime rich mortar, resulting in broken mortar to brick adhesive bonds and more 
disruption of the brick structural wall. When plants are killed with chemicals after 
root systems have already burrowed into the masonry, the removal of the dead plant 
leaves new channels for water and more biological growth. The chemicals can also be 
harmfiil to the masonry elements or add new soluble salts into the groundwater. 




Fig. 6.18 Bio-film and moss hci\>e progressed to 
high level vegetation. Ferns are growing in the 
roof cracks and will soon cause major 
destruction. Studio photograph, March 2001. 



Fig. 6.19 The stucco has been completely 
breached. Mortar has been replaced bv moss. 
Studio photograph, March 2001. 



196 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



MODELING OF TOMR D F CAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

6.3.5 Incompatible Surface Finishes 



Incompatible surface finishes fail because of failed adhesion. Adhesion relies on 

mechanical means to lock into a porous surface or a chemical attraction between 

surface and finish, or on both mechanisms working together. Finish to finish and 

finish to substrate incompatibility are due to mismatched mechanical properties, or 

poor surface preparation. When either or both of these conditions exist, the bond 

between surface and finish, or finish 

and older finish, is not great enough 

for adhesion and the finish will soon 

peel or flake off In the interface, 

shear tension is created and the 

materials pull apart. Many of the more 

elastic modem finishes used on tombs 

in the past were not compatible with 

the brittle lime washes originally on 

the surface. These modem organic 

finishes are also less environmentally 

stable and have yellowed and failed 

due to sunlight and UV degradation. ^'g- <5.-/ Thick layers of peeling modern surface 

finishes. Incomplete coverage and excessive 
biological growth in all the cracks and openings 
Studio photograph, March 2001. 




198 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



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MODELING OF TOMR DEC A Y AT ST. I.OJJJS CEMETERY NO. 1 

6.3.6 Incompatible Patches & Repairs 



In some tombs, rather than stabilize and restore, the worst areas of lost stucco were patched 
with modem cement. The moisture movement and strength properties of the patch are 
greatly different from the surrounding material. The older stucco is generally more 
absorptive and can wet out more, but has a much faster drying rate. At the interface, the 
cement patch inhibits the evaporative process of drying, keeping the seam area wetter and 
the materials beneath the patch damp. Expansive salts from the damage products of cement 
develop at the seam. Also at this point stresses due to expansion, hygric movement and 
dissolution transfer to the weaker material, causing the most damage to the historic material. 
Removal of bad repairs often causes even greater mechanical damage. The high adhesive 
strength of the repair would bond tightly to the wet brick or stucco substrate with 
compromised cohesive strength, thus resulting is fiirther destruction of the historic material 
as the repair is removed. This creates a situation in which the cement repairs cannot be 
considered reversible, repairable or sacrificial because they cannot be removed from the 

brick without causing greater damage. 
The incompatible repair ultimately 
requires total replacement. 




^ji. i \' -.-, Fig. 6.23 Cement patch pushed off of original due to 
3JaC damaged material and salts. 



200 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



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6.3.7 The Cement Straight-Jacket 



One solution to failing tombs has been to completely encase them in cement. Water 
will still enter the structure through rising damp and any small micro-cracks that 
develop, the internal porous materials will still respond to moisture movement and will 
try to move, creating stress within the system. The strength of the concrete shell will 
hold these stresses in check for some time until they become too great, when the 
pressure will be relieved through the development of a structural rupture. These 
cracks can be catastrophic to the structure and very hard to repair without dismantling 
the wall and resetting the brick. A related solution of the new cement roof has also 
damaged many tombs by adding much greater weight loads to the structures than the 
tombs were ever designed to carry. 




Fig. 6 25 The sides of a cement encased tomb 
beginning to break up. 



Fig. 6.26 The cement encasing the 
oldest action of wall vaults is cracking 
and has been poorly patched 



202 Tomb Decay Models & Scenarios 



MnPFJTNr, OF TOMR nF CA Y 4T MT mmS CEMFTFRY MH i 

7.0 Recommendations 

7. 1 Recommendations for Further Research 

During this research, there were many issues that could not be studied in the Hmited 
time period. More environmental information is required to ftilly understand the 
changes that occur within any tomb given the weather patterns, materials of 
construction, and micro climate including the surrounding precinct material and other 
paved areas and soil rheology. In a ftiture research project, it would also be instmctive 
to install environmental probes in the ground, on the exterior of a tomb, within the tomb 
and within the different structural system components to monitor temperature and humidity 
changes over time. That information might lead to better conclusions on the subsidence 
of tombs historically and under current conditions. 

The construction materials not covered in this research, particularly marble and 
metalwork, are very worthy of more research. In addition, a foil study of surface finish 
remains would provide a better understanding of the palette of colors seen within the 
site throughout its history. There remain technical questions on the type and thickness 
of finishes and their resultant impact on stucco performance. 



204 Recommendations 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

The database that was created for the Survey contains the "First Visible Date" for many 
of the tombs, and it is tempting to use those dates for research into conditions, style and 
construction materials. Unfortunately, too many of the dates that are visible are not 
believed to be the earliest date, and the date information was not heavily used herein. 
Local archival work with the Archdiocese interment records and the WPA survey made 
in the 1930s, further informed by local historians and genealogists, could improve the 
veracity of the data references. 

Another area for archival research is a continuation of the study that Henry Krotzer and 
others have made of the diaries and account books of builders and merchants providing 
the services and materials for construction in the 1800s. Those accounts may also 
contain more information on specific tombs and families to aid in the ongoing tomb 
restoration work sparked by the Alley 9-L tombscape restoration project funded by a 
grant from Save America 's Treasures. 

This research touched on the possibility of stucco porosity analysis by microscopy and 
image analysis. With the universe of samples now available from St. Louis Cemetery 
No. 1, fiirther research should be considered to compare and contrast available methods and 
techniques. With the advances in digitization that have been made in the most recent release 
of ESRI Arc View® 8.0, mapping thin-sections for porosity, mineral content and other matrix 

205 Recommendations 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

morphology questions might be more easily managed in GIS than in the currently promoted 
imaging programs developed for the biological sciences, such as Bioquant.® 

The development of robust models for decay of historic resources has been on the top 
of the lists for needed research at many of the conferences on conservation and 
deterioration of stone, brick and mortar. More research is needed to develop workable 
models that are practical and understandable enough that they will be used. Van Balen, 
et. al. have worked to develop a Masonry Damage Diagnostic System MDDS decision 
tree with a detailed questionnaire and selected test methods to determine the type of 
damage and make determinations of the damaging process between. They define 1 1 
different processes: frost damaging process, sah crystallization process, environmental 
pollution chemical process, surface erosion process, water penetration process, 
mechanical damaging process, surface deposition without chemical process, 
condensation process, structural damaging process, iron corrosion process and 
biological process. The model's complexity and the documentation required, however, 
may keep the use of the model low.''*^ 

Viles, reporting for the group session on mechanisms, modeling and prediction said: 
"Our aim in this section is to indicate ways in which we can improve the utility of our 
scientific knowledge of damage mechanisms and rates ... by a) overcoming the scale 



"* K. Van Balea K. "'Monitoring of Degradation. Selection of Treatment Strategies." In Saving Our 
Architectinal Heritage: The Consenation of Historic Stone Structures. Report of the Dahlem Workshop. Berlia 
March 3-8. 19%. N.S. Baerand R. Snalilage. eds. (New York: John Wile\' & Sons Ltd.. 1997). 167-179. 

206 Recommendations 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 

differences between the microscopic damage processes and their manifestation at the 
visible scale on buildings and b) using the copious amounts of data produced to 
develop predictive models. An overall goal is the use of modeling techniques for 
simplifying the range and resolution of data that need to be colleted for any one project. 
. . . The goal of modeling damage is to enable prediction. . . . modeling has the potential 
to link the microscale with the mesoscale."''*^ 

7.2 Recommendations for Aboveground Cemetery Guidelines 

This research has contributed to the base of knowledge on the brick, mortar and stucco 
used to build the tombs of St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 . The decay sketches and scenario 
schematics bring a considerable amount of technical theory and research into short 
form visuals for the education of a larger group of owners, managers and other 
interested supporters of the restoration programs at the site. Many of these images will be 
provided to the Louisiana Division of Historic Preservation, Office of Cultural 
Development and Tourism along with the Phase 2 Project Guidelines for the Preservation 
of Above-Ground Cemeteries and it is recommended that they be widely distributed. 



'^' H.A. Viles. et al. "Group Report: What is the State of Our Know ledge of the mechanisms of 
Deterioration and How Good are our Estimates of Rates of Deterioration?" Saving Our Architectural 
Heritage: The Consen'otion of Historic Stone Structures, Report of the Dahlem Workshop. BerUn. March 3-8, 
1996. N.S. Baer and R Snethlage, eds. (New York: John WUey & Sons Ltd. 1997). 108-109. 

207 Recommendations 



MODEJJNG OF TOMR DEC AY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 
8.0 Conclusions 

The true root cause for the deterioration results seen at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 is a 
lack of cyclical maintenance and timely periodic repair. The weathering and ageing of 
porous building materials is to be expected. The surface finishes and stucco layers 
were applied as sacrificial finishes to protect the interior structural elements. 
Webster's unabridged dictionary defines sacrificial as "relating to sacrifice, the 
destruction or surrender of something for the sake of something else; giving up of some 
desirable thing in behalf of a higher object." In building materials, sacrificial implies 
impermanence, and the original intent was that the sacrificial finishes, both stucco and 
lime washes, would be replaced more fi^equently that the structural body when their 
effectiveness became reduced. 

Periodic sealing of small cracks in stucco fi"om the White, Tan and Dark Tan groups 
would have kept these finishes effective for many decades, possibly longer. Since the 
stucco was not repaired, or was repaired or encased with incompatible materials, the 
different responses to moisture have made each material respond and move differently. 
Movement has occurred to relieve mechanical stresses buih up through material 
expansion and deformation or through chemical processes, both driven primarily by the 
movement, or lack of movement, of moisture through the composite system. In all 
cases, this has led to escalating damage, whether visible or remaining hidden for years. 

208 Conclusions 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Water cannot be removed from the environment at St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 Once 
tombs are stabilized and structural issues are repaired, plans are to grout, repoint and 
stucco restored tombs with mixes based on compatible materials with good 
performance characteristics for the environment, such as hydraulic lime. This research 
indicates that many of the original stucco layers contain hydraulic components for 
greater protection in such a damp environment, and that the weak mortar joints did not, 
but perhaps should have. The current use of hydraulic lime as the restoration mortar 
and stucco should ensure better stability to the dissolving actions of water on the 
mortar and should be comparable to stucco used in the past in terms of its compatibility 
with the soft interior brick. 



209 Conclusions 



MOnFUNG OF TOMR DEC A Y AT ST. JOIJIS CEME TERY NO. 1 
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MOnFUNGOFTOMBDECAYATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



APPENDICES 



Appendix A GIS Analysis of Conditions. 

Appendix B Sampling Record 

Appendix C Experimental Data 

Appendix D Summary Results 



.228 



.235 



.267 



.293 



227 Appendices 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Appendix A 
GIS Maps of Conditions 



228 Appendix A - GIS Analysis 



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MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Appendix B 
Sampling Record 



236 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




mm \\\ 



Simple Parapet 



Tan/Gray 



Sample \ 0002-01 | 17-Nov-01 



Type 



Cond 



Stucco with Finish 



PriSt I Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs \\ MIT \ Grav 



_M_ 



M^ 



n. 



Cornice altered - stuccoed over 



Tan-Gr, Cement layer, Samples have 
distinct layers, 



#1 2 \ 1st Date] 192T 



Da Ibern i/C la vIn/Pecora 




Cornice altered - stuccoed over 



Tan layer under cement, finish peels 
off. 



'■\ ^ list Date \ 1958" 



Marant/Gallard/LaFluer 




Cornice altered - stuccoed over 



WhiteGray stucco, 



No Comment 



Simple Parapet 



Tan/Gray 



Sample \ 0002-03 17-Nov-01 



Type 



Cond 



Mortar 



PriSt \ Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs \\ MIT \ Grav 



M_ 



D 



M. 



Cornice altered - stuccoed over 



#1 9 \ 1st Date \ 18^ 




Material integrity questionable, but 
more than 75% of material is original, 
should restore this one Eariier layer 
was limewashed, Big cracks, not 
telescoping, stucco brittle, not flexible. 



23 7 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO 



deLaronde 




Material integrity questionable, but 
more than 75% of material is original, 
should restore this one Eariier layer 
was limewashed, Big cracks, not 
telescoping, stucco brittle, not flexible. 



Material integrity questionable, but 
more than 75% of material is original, 
should restore this one. Eariier layer 
was limewashed, Big cracks, not 
telescoping, stucco brittle, not flexible. 



Material integrity questionable, but 
more than 75% of material is original, 
should restore this one Eariier layer 
was limewashed. Big cracks, not 
telescoping, stucco brittle, not flexible. 




238 Appendix B Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




No stucco on roof. We should 

restore this one Telescoping v 
evident on right side Originally built 
as 2 vaults with Parapet like the add- 
ons were becoming. Transitional. 



239 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




No Stucco on roof. We should 
restore this one. Telescoping v. 
evident on right side. Originally built 
as 2 vaults with Parapet like the add- 
ons were becoming. Transitional. 



Cement stucco, SF under the cement 
layer 



Unusual/non traditional cornice on 
roofline: possible alteration 



Gray, 



No stucco on roof, 2-coat stucco 
work, but original, very coarse. Some 
telescoping, map cracking at parapet 



Tan, 




No stucco on roof, 2-coat stucco 
work, but original, very coarse. Some 
telescoping, map cracking at parapet 



No stucco on roof, 2-coat stucco 
work, but original, very coarse, Some 
telescoping, map cracking at parapet 



Large sample, more on brick if needed 



No stucco on roof 



2-/0 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




New stucco on roof. May have begun 
as a step tomb, with added story and 
parapet 



Red evident, blue color visible/parapet 
almost completely gone. Was 
limewashed right on old brick, stucco 
added later. Mix of brick sizes. 




Red evident, blue color visible/parapet 
almost completely gone Was 
limewashed right on old brick, stucco 
added later. Mix of brick sizes. 




Red evident, blue color visible/parapet 
almost completely gone. Was 
limewashed right on old brick, stucco 
added later Mix of brick sizes 



iDk Tan 




Red evident, blue color visible/parapet 
almost completely gone. Was 
limevrashed right on old brick, stucco 
added later. Mix of brick sizes. 



ake sample from Brick 



Catastrophic structural failure: no 
fomi to adhere to. Date must be much 
eariier, 2x4x8.5 hand molded river 
brick. 



Not local?? Very hard 



241 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Simple Step | Tan 


Sample 0092-03 | 27-Dec-01 


Type 


Mortar 


Cond. 


PriSl 


Roof 


Stucco 


1 








Moisture Abs \ \ Ml T | Grav 


S D W 



Catastrophic structural failure: no 
form to adhere to. Date must be much 
earlier, 2x4x8.5 hand molded river 
brick. 




All original 2-coat stucco work, overall 
map cracking and some rising damp 
from neightwring precinct. Has slate 
roof cover. 



rr H 

Moisture. 4bs \ \ MIT \ Grav 

M D 



All original 2-coat stucco wori<, overall 
map cracking and some rising damp 
from neighboring precinct. Has slate 
roof cover. 




All original 2-coat stucco wori<, overall 
map cracking and some rising damp 
from neighboring precinct. Has slate 
roof cover. 



Dk Tan, Take sample from Brick 



Adhesion still good, even though there 
Is some lost mortar where roof has 
been lost. Stucco still on brick, even 
where mortar washed out. 



Thin layer of cement over a painted 
surface 



Adhesion still good, even though there 
is some lost mortar where roof has 
been lost Stucco still on brick, even 
where mortar washed out. 



2-/2 Appetidix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Adhesion still good, even though there 
is some lost mortar where roof has 
been lost. Stucco still on brick, even 
where mortar washed out. 



Adhesion still good, even though there 
is some lost mortar where roof has 
been lost. Stucco still on brick, even 
where mortar washed out. 



Some loss of formal integrity due to 
loss of bricks. Rising Damp study 
written on this tomb, 5/2001 See 
report. 




May be an eariier date on the bottom. 
Remaining stucco well bonded, good 
weathering, cracking at the top. 



May be an eariier date on the bottom. 
Remaining stucco well bonded, good 
weathering, cracking at the top 



May be an eariier date on the bottom. 
Remaining stucco well bonded, good 
weathering, cracking at the top. 



Tan-Gr, 



243 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



ff\ 1^ \ 1st Date \ ISST 



Dreux 




Tan/Gray 



Sample 



29-Mar-02 



Type 



Cond. 



Stucco 



PriSt I Roof Stucco 



1 



Moisture Abs Ml T Grav 



0. 



n_ 



_n 



May be an earlier date on the bottom. 
Remaining stucco well bonded, good 
weathering, cracking at the top. 




May be an earlier date on the bottom. 
Remaining stucco well bonded, good 
weathering, cracking at the top. 



2.5" handmade bricks on bottom, 2.5 
smooth manmade bricks on top. 
Stucco with brickdust in the lower 
level, Bricks are the same size top 
and bottom, but looks added onto. 




2.5" handmade bricks on bottom, 2.5 
smooth manmade bricks on top. 
Stucco with brickdust in the lower 
level, Bricks are the same size top 
and txittom, but looks added onto. 



Stucco with brick dust. Not quite large 
enough for MVT. 



2.5" handmade bricks on twttom, 2.5 
smooth manmade bricks on top. 
Stucco vwth brickdust in the lower 
level, Bricks are the same size top 
and bottom, but looks added onto. 

DkTan, Cement Thin Coating 



2.5" handmade bricks on bottom, 2.5 
smooth manmade bricks on top. 
Stucco with brickdust in the lower 
level. Bricks are the same size top 
and bottom, but looks added onto. 



Gray 



244 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 




245 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



ff\ 226 \ 1st Date] 1806" 
Souterre 




246 Appendix B Sampling Record 



I # I 237 I 1st Date \ 9999 
Blank 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

#1 239 \ 1st Date \ 1854 




Detachment & bowing of stucco layer 



Top of roof partially restuccoed, 
cracking at roonop needs attention 




Top of roof partially restuccoed, 
cracking at rooftop needs attention 




24 7 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




No Comment 



Tan, Very hard coating of SF, 



Very rougti, Large aggregate stucco 
with crushed shells High lime mortar 
with river brick Testimony to eariy 
quality and compatibility of materials. 



River brick, early white stucco with 
shells 



Very rough. Large aggregate stucco 
with cmshed shells. High lime mortar 
with river brick Testimony to eariy 
quality and compatibility of materials 



River brick, Eariy stucco with shells 



248 Appendix B Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Very rough, Large aggregate stucco 
with crushed shells High lime mortar 
with river brick. Testimony to early 
quality and compatibility of materials. 



Very rough, Large aggregate stucco 
with crushed shells. High lime mortar 
with river brick Testimony to eariy 
quality and compatibility of materials. 



Moisture Abs \\ M IT \ Gray 

Back and top of Parapet - Lost all 
stucco, the rest is good, caveau 
frontspiece missing 




Blue color evident; probably used to 
be a parapet, but parapet is now 
missing 



Tan, Hard coating under white SF, 



No Comment 



Tan, Very hard gray coating SF, 



Cement with small pebbles used for 
patching 



Tan, 



249 Appendix B Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 




Tomb layers, Additions.Only 1st level 
has finish now. 



White cement, Stucco took brick face 
off. 



1^1 291 \ 1st Date \ 192~ 



Guma, et al 




Simple Parapet 



Tan 



Sample \ 0291-02 | 21-Mar-02 



Type 



Cond 



Stucco 



PriSt I Roof Stucco 



Moisture . its A/IT Grav 



LL 



_M. 



n. 



No Comment 



Front has hard shell finish, sample 
from side xfinish 




Wall Vault 



Sample \ 0275-02 [ 21-Mar-02 



Type 



Cond 



Stucco 



Prist I Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs A/IT Grav 



n. 



n. 



Tomb layers. Additions, Only 1st level 
has finish now. 



MVT Size, White-Gray 




1st Date 1927 



Guma, et al 



Simple Parapet 



Tan 



Sample 



0291-01 



Type 



Cond 



Stucco with Finish 



PriSt I Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs A/ IT Grav 



_M. 



n. 



n. 



No Comment 



DkTan, Hard coating SF, 



#1 313 list Date \ 1853 
RIera, et al 




No Comment 



DkTan, 



Red color evident, Alteration evident, 
Re-roofed in cement 



DkTan, Small chunk, lower finish 



250 Apperjdix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Pediment Tomb 



Sample \ 0313-02 | 18-Nov-OI 



Type 



Stucco with Finisli 



Cond. PriSt Roof | Stucco 



Moisture Abs MIT Grav 



M. 



n_ 



n. 



Red color evident, Alteration evident, 
Re-roofed in cement 



Tan, Upper part of tomb, Very thick 
stucco, 



1st Date \ 1838 



Brousseau, et al 




Roof wide open, missing bricks in 
parapet 



Separated tan layer only 




#1 334 list Date] ISsT 
Brousseau, et al 



Roof w/ide open, missing bricks in 
parapet 



Tan-Gr, Only orig. layer still on brick, 



M\ 373 list Date] 192o" 




Roof wide open, missing bricks in 
parapet 



v. small pieces, mostly crushed 




25 1 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Orange evident 



Sample \ 0373-02 | 30-Dec-01 



Type 



Stucco 



Cond. Prist \ Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs \ \ MIT \ Grav 

s D a_ 



Gray on top of SF from earlier layer 



#1 383 list Date \ 1924" 



Deangausse 





252 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




253 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 




Blue color evident 



Dktan 



1st Date: 1848 



Trice u/Pitot/Boudreaux 




Simple Parapet 



Tan 



Sample \ 0503-01 | 14-Oct-01 



Type 



Cond. 



Stucco with Finish 



PriSt I Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs LVIT Grav 



.M_ 



n LL 



No Comment 



Tan, 



Blue color evident 



V. small pieces, mostly crushed 



505 



Isl Date 9999 



Roche 




All stucco off of roof - Collapsed, 
Comer bricks missing on structure. 
Breached vault through roof Blue/grey 
color visible on stucco 




Sample 



Type 



Cond 



Stucco 



PriSt I Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs A/IT Grav 



m. 



No Comment 



_D Q. 



Tan 



508 



1st Date 1853 



Montreuil/Crocker 




254 Appendix B Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




518 



1st Date \ 1887 



Sodiedad Cervantes de B.M. 



Society 



Sample \ 0518-01 | 18-Nov-OI 



Type 



Stucco with Finish 



Cond. PriSi \ Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs MIT Grav 



^ 



.n. 



n. 



Badly cracking, Restored by 
Archdiocese. 




Marble front probably added, Stucco 
loss on roof, walls good 



Marble front protsably added, Stucco 
loss on roof, walls good. 




DkTan, Hard layer coating under loose 



#\ S41 \ 1st Date 9999" 
Parker 




Pediment Tomb 



Tan 



Sample \ 0541-01 14-Oct-01 



Type 



Cond 



Stucco with Finish 



PriSt I Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs MIT Grav 



M. 



H 



XI 



Large bowing areas.roof lost stucco 



DkTan, 



255 Appendix B Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Pediment Tomb 



Tan 



Sample 



0544-02 I 18-Nov-OI 



Type 



Cond 



Stucco with Finish 



PriSt I Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs MIT Grav 



M. 



u_ 



u_ 



stucco missing at roofs edge and 
right inner wall, Bowing & delaminated. 



White SF over a hard gray coating SF, 



#1 548 \ 1st Date \ 182o" 



Bofill/Grather 




Sample \ 0548-01 I8-N0V-OI 



Type 



Cond. 



Brick with Stucco 



PriSt I Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs Ml T Grav 



m. 



n 



Red evident, addition evidence- eariy 
tablet and tablet typoology 




Pediment Tomb 



Sample \ 0544-03 | 01-Jan-02 



Type 



Cond 



Stucco 



Prist 



Roof 



Stucco 



Moisture Abs \\ MIT \ Grav 



M. 



_n. 



u_ 



Stucco missing at roofs edge and 
right inner wall. Bowing & delaminated 



Tan, SF removed 



#\ 548 \ 1st Date \ 1820" 




Moisture Abs MIT Grav 



_SL 



_M_ 



Red evident, addition evidence- eariy 
tablet and tablet typoology. 




Simple Parapet 



Tan 



Sample \ 0548-03 | I8-N0V-OI 



Type 



Cond 



Mortar 



Prist I Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs Mi T Grav 



_a 



n. 



M. 



Red evident, addition evidence- early 
tablet and tablet typoology. 



256 Appendix B Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

# I 548 \ist Dale 1820" 




Red evident, addition evidence- early 
tablet and tablet typoology 



Tan, SF all worn off 



# I 551 I 1st Date \ 9999" 
Vaucresson 




Simple Parapet 



Sample \ 0551-01 | 14-Oct-01 



Type 



Cond. 



Stucco with Finish 



PriSt I Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs MIT Grav 



_a. 



ji 



Sloppy paint job 



Gray, 




U\ 550 \lsiDate\ 1866" 



Barry 




Simple Platform 



Sample 



Type 



Cond 



14-Oct-01 



Stucco wfith Finish 



PriSt I Roof Stucco 



Moisture Ahs MIT \ Grav 



_M_ 



M. 



n. 



Red Evident, Several small open 
areas of stucco on left side, cornice 
muddied by sloppy repair 



DkTan, Modem SF easily peels off, 



#\ 552 list Date \ 1804 
Dussuau 




Red evident, no stucco on roof 



Original Tan stucco layer, no SF 



25 7 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 




Reroofed, Girdle of cement, Where it 
broke, tool< bricl<, not flexible Mix of 
handmade river and early machine 
made lake bricks. 



3 layers of stucco, 1 st two thick. 



# I 558 I I St Date I 9999" 



Illegible 




Reroofed, Girdle of cement. Where it 
broke, took brick, not flexible. Mix of 
handmade river and early machine 
made lake bricks 



Layer #2, Dk Tan 




Reroofed, Girdle of cement. Where it 
broke, took brick, not flexible Mix of 
handmade river and eariy machine 
made lake bricks. 



Should try to find archival data 



i^ I SS8 I 7^ Date \ 9999" 



Illegible 




Reroofed, Girdle of cement. Where it 
broke, took brick, not flexible. Mix of 
handmade river and eariy machine 
made lake bricks 



Tan, 1 St layer of stucco 




Reroofed, Girdle of cement. Where it 
broke, took brick, not flexible. Mix of 
handmade river and eariy machine 
made lake bricks. 



Poss. River brick. Alley 9L samples. 



# I 558 I 1st Date \ 9999" 

Illegible 




Simple Platform 



Tan/Gray 



Sample \ 0558-07 01-Jan-02 



Type 



Cond. 



Stucco 



Prist I Roof 



Stucco 



Moisture Abs MIT Grav 



a. 



n_ 



n. 



Reroofed, Girdle of cement. Where it 
broke, took brick, not flexible. Mix of 
handmade river and eariy machine 
made lake bricks 



Gray, Top cement layer #3 



258 Appendix B Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

#\ 562 \ 1st Date \ 1929 




Parapet probably added; cornice 
profile crude 



Simple Parapet 



Sample 



Type 



Cond. 



Stucco with Finish) 



PriSt I Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs MIT Grav 



m. 



n^ 



^ 



1 St layer of 2 layer tan/tan stucco 



564 



1st Date 




Parapet probably added; cornice 
profile crude 



DkTan, Layers of SF 



565 



1st Date 9999 



Villavaso 




O Q. 



Red evident, Many cracksin roof 
stucco, left side mostly gone 



Tan, 



573 



\ 1st Date \ 1853 




New roof, badly cracking though., 
alley 9L 



Tan, Top white SF layer 



Cement patching on roof, Possible 
addition of upper tier- cracking at 
seam, tablet system and scale of 
adjacent tombs. 



DkTan, 



Stucco missing on roof, Flexible 
stucco, adhesion good to brick, where 
bricks move, see telescoping 



259 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




stucco missing on roof, Flexible 
stucco, adhesion good to brick, wtiere 
bricks move, see telescoping. 



Stucco missing on roof, Flexible 
stucco, adhesion good to brick, where 
bricks move, see telescoping. 



DkTan, Big enough for MVT 




Cement patching, stucco loss on roof, 
failing by splitting into three distinct 
bays Wythes not laced together. 
Unusual cup-out of top layer of stucco 
in back. Sampled 



Gray, Cement coating from front of 
tomb 



Cement patching, stucco loss on roof, 
failing by splitting into three distinct 
bays. Wythes not laced together. 
Unusual cup-out of top layer of stucco 
in back. Sampled. 



DkTan, Outer layer, back of tomb, 



Cement patching, stucco loss on roof, 
failing by splitting into three distinct 
bays. Wythes not laced together. 
Unusual cup-out of top layer of stucco 
in back. Sampled. 



Tan, Orig. stucco, From front of tomb 




260 Appendix B Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



#\ 579 I 1st Date \ 9999" 




Atypical tomb; questionable formal 
integrity. Inflexible cement, big cracks 



261 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Badly racking, Restuccoed w/ cement, 
new roof 



Tan-Gr, 



Coated in cement. Roof totally 
exposed, most of left side exposed 



Tan-Gr, 



Coated in cement. Roof totally 
exposed, most of left side exposed. 



262 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



#1 600 \ 1st Date \ 1824 
Colin, et al 




Coated in cement, Roof totally 
exposed, most of left side exposed. 



Tan layer separated for testing 



#\ 601 I 7^ Date \ 9999" 




^!?":'"yW 



Simple Platform 



Tan/Gray 



Sample \ 0601-03 ; 01-Jan-02 



Type 



Cond 



Stucco 



PriSt I Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs 



A/ IT Grav 



_M. 



n Q. 



Top and sides restuccoed in gray 
cement 



Gray layer only 



Coated In cement. Roof totally 
exposed, most of left side exposed 



Gray layer separated for testing 



# I 602 I Jst Date \ 9999" 

Blank 



I # I 601 I 1st Date \ 9^ 
Blank 




Simple Platform | Tan/Gray 



Sample 



Type 



Cond 



0601-02 01-Jan-02 



Stucco 



PriSt I Roof I Stucco 



Moisture Abs \\ MIT \ Grav 



M. 



I± 



H 



Top and sides restuccoed in gray 
cement 



Tan layer only 



#1 612 list Date \ 9999" 




Patched in cement, small areas, Very 
bad peeling finish 



White, Separated to test. 



Bad delamination of stucco, SF not 
rubt)ery, unusual roof form; looks like 
a replacement 



Gray, 



263 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 




Tan, 



1200 



1st Date \ 1813 



Treme Alley Right, 8 4-high Vaults 




Wall Vault 



Sample 



Type 



Cond. 



1200-03e 01-Mar-02 



Mortar 



PriSi I Roof Stucco 



Moisture Ahs MIT Grav 



m^ 



n^ 



LL 



Samples of river brick already at lab. 
See Hannah-Hlnctiman 5/2001 report. 



East section 



Samples of river brick already at lab. 
See Hannah-Hinchman 5/2001 report. 



East Section, Gray Cement mostly 



1200 



1st Date \ 1813 



Treme Alley Right, 8 4-high Vaults 




White 



Sample \ 1200-04m j 01-Mar-02 



Type 



Cond. 



Mortar 



Prist I Roof 



1 



1 



Stucco 



Moisture Ahs .\/IT Grav 



_M_ 



_n_ 



n. 



Samples of river brick already at lab. 
See Hannah-Hinchman 5/2001 report. 



Samples of river brick already at lab. 
See Hannah-Hinchman 5/2001 report. 



Mid Section, White 



1200 



list Date 1813 



Treme Alley Right, 8 4-high Vaults 




Wall Vault 



Sample 



Type 



Cond 



1200-05e ' 01-Mar-02 



Brick 



Prist I Roof 



1 



1 



Stucco 



Moisture Abs MIT Grav 



M. 



M. 



n. 



Samples of river brick already at lab. 
See Hannah-Hinchman 5/2001 report. 



East Vaults 



264 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 




Sample \ 1200-06m | 01-Mar-02 



Type 



Cond 



Prist 



Roof 



Moisture Abs 



WIT Grav 



_a 



M_ 



XI 



Samples of river brick already at lab. 
See Hannah-Hinchman 5/2001 report. 



1200 



list Date \ 1813 



Treme Alley Right, 8 4-high Vaults 




Wall Vault 



Sample \ 1200-09 | 21-Mar-02 



Type 



Cond 



Mortar 



1 



PriSt Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs MIT Grav 



M. 



n. 



M^ 



Samples of river brick already at lab 
See Hannah-Hinchman 5/2001 report. 



East, Tan Mortar 




Wall Vault 



Sample \ 1200-07e | 21-Mar-02 



Type 



Stucco 



PriSt I Roof I Stucco 



Moisture Abs \\ MIT \ Grav 



M^ 



n. 



M. 



Samples of river brick already at lab. 
See Hannah-Hinchman 5/2001 report. 



East Section, Probably not original 




Wall Vault 



Sample \ 1200-08 | 21-Mar-02 



Type 



Cond 



Stucco 



Prist I Roof 



Stucco 



Moisture Abs \\ MIT \ Grav 



M. 



n 



M. 



Samples of river brick already at lab. 
See Hannah-Hinchman 5/2001 report. 



Mid section .White Lime Stucco like 
259. 



Wall Vault 



Sample \ 1 200-1 1e | 21-Mar-02 



Type 



Cond 



Mortar 



PriSt I Roof Stucco 



1 



1 



Moisture Abs MIT Grav 



_a_ 



n 



Samples of river brick already at lab. 
See Hannah-Hinchman 5/2001 report. 



East, White mortar 



Wall Vault 



White 



Sample \ 1200-1 2m 21-Mar-02 



Type 



Mortar 



Cond PriSt \ Roof Stucco 



1 



Moisture Abs MIT Grav 



M. 



n^ 



M. 



Samples of river brick already at lab. 
See Hannah-Hinchman 5/2001 report. 



Mid vaults, White, Lots of shell bits 



265 Appendix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 




Tan/Gray 



Saiiif>lL' 



Type 



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Stucco with Finish 



PruSi 



Roof Stucco 



Moisture Abs 



MIT Grav 



M. 



H 



M. 



Some areas are bare, others 
restuccoed in cement, unpainted. 



Cement on the wall vaults. 




266 Appetidix B - Sampling Record 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



Appendix C 
Experimental Data 



267 Appendix C - Experimental Data 



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S'ffi'i 




S'g'sigilglS's^SiS'&S^SiSiSI 






CO 






oo oo o o'oio;ooio o ;^ ^ V^^ ■^ ■^if^l 



i 

I 

>-; 

I 

I 
si 

§ 



si 



1^ 





1 


c 

1 

X 




- 


- 


- 


o •^ 


o 


O 


- 


- 


o 


- 


o 


O 


- 


o 


o 


- 


- 


- 


- 


cs 


CM 








a 




n 

c 

e 

en 


■a 
c 

CO 


■D 
C 
=3 

o 
CO 


1 

C 

2 






=3 

S 




1 


t: 

■c 

c 


■o 

c 


1 

c 
C 


(r. 




c 

2 
A 


2 
A 

CO 


■c 

Z3 

2 
i. 

ID 

CO 


C 

z 
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c 


■o 

c 

c 

C^ 


c: 
z 


1 
X) 

5 








1 




E 


il 


IT 


iZ 


1 


1 


1 




Li. 


c 


iT 


il 


iZ 


Ll 


1 


LL 


LL 


U. 


il 


Ll 


il 


LL 








o 

3 




ir 
o 


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S 


i 

>- 


s 


s 

>- 


>- 
o 


5 

en 

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s 

tr 

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1 


a: 

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tr 

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tr 

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1 


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5 

in 


5; 


1 


>- 








E 
o 
o 




1 
1 

iS 




1 

Q 


1 

o 

CO 


s 

Q 

1 
CO 

ll 




iZ 






c 

1 
s 


CO 
> 

g 

5 


1 

Q 

> 


1 

1 

5 
> 


Q 


f 


§ 

2 

1 
a 

CO 


1 

1 

3 

CO 


















1- 




1 


i 


i 


i 


i 


1 


i 


5 

z 


i 


i 


i 


i 


1 


i 


< 

2 


z 


1 


i 


1 


1 


i 


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1 

m 

si 
c 




o 


o 


o 


b 


o 
o 


s 


■^ 


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in 
o 


s 


8 

o 


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s 

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o 


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r~- 


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s 

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56 


t 

s 




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■s 


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3 




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1 


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s 
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1 


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1 


T3 
i 


1 


1 


1 


1 

o 
3 


1 

o 


1 


1 


1 






1 

E 


ss 




i 








5? 


ss 






^ 


s 

r^ 


8 


s 

8 


8 

O 






3? 


ss 


1 


3? 


g 


s 


i 




o 


B 


S 




o 
o 


8 


° 


° 


o 


8 


8 


s 


8 


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O 


S 


" 




o 


O 
CO 


O 


S 


2 




o 


1 






1 


i 




1 


s 


5 




1 


i 


i 


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i 


f 


s 


s 


s 




1 

2 


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2 




1 






o 

1 


1 




s 


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s 


1 


1 


1 


i 


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i 


i 


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8 


8 
8 


■^ 


i 


i 


i 


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a 
E 

s 






9 

s 
s 


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3 


in 


9 


9 
5 


5 


o 


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9 

3 


b 


1 


9 

s 


9 

s 


9 

s 


1 
S 


9 


<3j 
o 


6 

s 

8 


s 


6 

S 


E 

i 





I 

i 

-T 
>^ 

i 

fa, 

si 

§ 



SI 

I* 



in 
O 

s. 




n 
K 

^ 


? 

^ 


S 


in 

Si 

CO 


# 
E 

s 


in 




CS| 


CO 
CM 


1 


1 


CD 


00 






CM 
CM 
CO 
CM 


CM 


o 

CO 


O) 

o 

CM 
CO 


§ 


00 


SB 




CO 


5 


a. 

<A 

Q 

1 


CO 
CO 




o 




o 


r^ 
S 


o 


o 


o 


CO 

00 
CO 


o 
d 

CD 


CO 

o6 

00 


CO 

i 




o 


O 


O 

d 


i 


(D 


cd 


CO 
00 


o 


CO 

s 


CO 


re 

■a 


c£ 


8 

CO 

in 




in 




s 

s 


o 


5o 


?3 


CO 


CO 


cvi 


rvi 

CO 


in 

(D 


CO 

OJ 




o 

CO 


n 

8 


d 


CM 
CO 


in 


^ 
§ 


JQ 
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0) 


fe 
s 


5 


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# 

5 
t^ 




ob 


<N 
<N 


8 

d 


2 


CO 
CD 


o 


^ 


1 

CM 


^ 
S 
S 




CO 


CO 

in 


CM 
0) 


CO 


CM 
CM 


i 

1^ 


CN 


i 

CM 


CM 




CO 


w 

a. 
E 
re 
W 


3 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


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1 


1 


1 


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1 


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1 


1 


1 


1 


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c 

M 

Q 


D> 

C 

Q 


CO 


■* 


■* 


<N 


■* 


- 


in 


CO 


CM 


in 


in 


•* 


(O 


CM 


CO 


CO 


■* 


■* 


CN 


■* 


•«t 


CM 


+ 
in 


CO 


1 

c 

3 


O 


Of 

> 
in 


1 

O 


m 

tr 

>- 

csi 


in 


> 
in 

CN 


> 
in 


DC 

> 

in 

CN 


5 

or 

> 
in 


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in 


>- 
in 


> 
in 

CM 


IT 

> 
in 


a 

DC 

o 


5 

D£. 

> 
in 


a: 

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in 


1 

DC 

> 

in 


DC 

> 

o 


5 

CD 

OC 

> 
in 

CM 


So 
oc 
> 
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tt: 
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m 


i 

ct 

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5 

OC 

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01 

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CM 


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C3) 

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oc 

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a. 


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6 


a: 


c 

6 


c 
Q. 


c 


ID 

o 


0) 

O 


c 

6 


6 


oc 

6 


c 
(II 

H 

6 


OC 

6 

Q 


oc 
6 






E 


E 


nj 


E 

i 

Q. 


E 

1 

Q- 


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1 


1 

(5 


1 

(0 


1 

Q. 


i 

Q. 


1 

ra 
Q. 


ro 
Q. 


E 

1 
ro 

CL 


ra 
ro 
Q. 


E 

1 
ro 
CL 


E 

1 
ro 
Q. 


E 

1 
ro 
Q- 


ro 
ro 
Q. 


I 

ro 
ro 
CL 


I 

ro 
(5 


(D 
0. 


> 
ro 


> 

ra 


1 

u. 




CM 
CO 


1 


CO 




C3> 


en 


1 


CM 
OO 


i 


1 


00 




1 


00 


00 


1 


1 


i 


1 


8 
8 


i 


1 


CO 
00 


CO 




0) 

E 
re 
m 


i 


o 

c^ 

8 


5 


CO 


s 


9 


o 
o 


o 


o 

i 

o 


o 


o 


9 

CI) 

in 


o 

CO 

8 


9 
i 


o 


o 
o 


OJ 

cp 

00 

in 
in 

° 


CO 

cp 

CO 

in 
in 

° 


5 

CO 


OJ 

CD 

di 


CO 

cp 

CJ) 

s 


CM 

cp 

CO 
O) 

s 


s 

8 

CM 


8 

8 

OJ 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Table 12 - Final Testing Plan - St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 
Stucco H2O Total Immersion, % Porosity 

1 19 Stucco Samples, 89 Tombs Tested 



Brick H2O Total Immersion, % Porosity, Salt Identification 

24 Bricks. 72 Samples (3/brick), 18 Tombs 



Mortar H2O Total Immersion, % Porosity 

20 Mortar Samples. 1 7 Tombs Tested 



None 



White 



N/A 



Capillary Absorpt 



Tan DkTan Gray ComboT ComboDk 



200-03 
259-04 



ion. Drying Curves & MVT, 35 Stucco Samples Tested 



45-01 

548-02/x 

579-05 

239-02 



04-01 
89-02/x 
291-02 
573-03 
550-01 
508-01 
226-03 



44-01 
551-01 
581-01 
275-02 
200-05 
602-02 



146-03 

600-02/04 

9-04/07/08 

02-01/05 

146-03 



120-02 
200-01/04 

04-01 
39-03/04 



Stucco Gravimetric/Acid Digestion and Salt Identification, 30 Samples Analyzed 



N/A 



200-03 

259-04 

1200M-02 

1200M-08 

1200E-11 



45-01 

548-02 

13-01 

1200-09 



89-02 
573-03 
107-01 



44-01 

581-01 

1300-01 

275-02 

602-02 



600-04/05 
9-07/08 
14-01/02 



39-01/02 
200- 
01/05 
558- 
04/5/7 



Mortar Gravimetric/Acid Digestion and Salt Identification - 20 Analyzed 

Capillary Absorption, Drying Curves & MVT 17 Brick w/ Stucco Samples Tested 

R = River Brick, L = Lake Brick 



N/A 



R: 259-01 
R: 259-02 



L: 013-01 
R: 251-01 
L: 548-01 
R: 579-03 
L: 593-04 
R: 045-02 



R: 089-04 
R: 107-01 
L: 573-01 



None 



R: 009-04 
L: 146-01 
L: 334-01 



L: 120-01 
L: 558-01 
L: 558-02 



Capillary Absorption, Drying Curves & MVT 14 Brick w/o Stucco Samples Tested 
R = River Brick, L = Lake Brick 



92-02x 



R 259-0 Ix 



L:013-01x 
L: 548-Olx 
R: 579-03X 
L: 593-04X 



R:089-04x 
L: 573-Olx 



None 



R: 009-04X 
L: 146-Olx 



L: 120- 
Olx 

R: 558- 
03x 



Reflected Light Microscopy - Matrix Porosity & Interface Analysis - Thick Sections 

I 1200-08 I 548-02 | 89-02 \ | 9-07.08 | 39-01.02 



Polarized Light Microscopy - Mineral ID and Thin Section of all layers 



1200-08 
200-03 



45-01 



89-05 



581-01 



9-04. 03 
600-04/05 



? 74 Appendix C ~ Experimental Data 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Table 13 - Stucco Water Vapor Transmission Test Data 
Calculated Values are Shaded in Green 









7-Day WVT 










Stucco 


Stucco 


Surfece 


t 


G 


cm 


A 


Sample 


g/hr*cm* 


g/day*m* 


Samples 


Type 


Finish 


Time hrs. 


WL Change 


Thick 


Test Ares 


Diameter 


WVT 


WVT 


0551-01 


Gray 


SF 


168 


0.35 


0.692 


21.23 

22.89 

22.05 

22.05" 

22.05" 

20.42" 

21.23" 

21.23" 

22.05" 

22.89" 

20.42 

22.05 

22.05 

21.23" 

22.05 

21.23 

21.23 

22.05 

21.23 

21.23 

22.05 

22.05 

21.23 

22.05 

20.42 

21.23 

20.42 

21.23 

21.23 

22.05 

22.05 

21.23 

22.05 


5.2 


0.00010 
0.00015 
0.00044 
0.00050 
0.00053 
0.00057 
0.00060 
0.00067 
0.00013 
0.00014 
0.00014 
0.00015 
0.00017 
0.00020 
0.00025 
0.00040 
0.00046 
0.00047 
0.00051 
0.00051 
0.00051 
0.00054 
0.00056 
0.00060 
0.00060 
0.00064 
0.00069 
0.00069 
0.00069 
0.00071 
0.00083 
0.00085 
0.00106 


23.56 

36.20 

106.25 

119.21 

126.33 

136.44 

143.35 

160.85 

31.10 

32.45 

32.98 

36.28 

40.82 

49.13 

58.96 

95.57 

110.37 

112.08 

123.14 

121.82 

123.09 

130.22 

133.93 

144.47 

144.83 

153.45 

164.42 

164.89 

165.56 

170.39 

198.89 

203.92 

253.96 


0002-01 


Tan-Gr 


SF 


168 


0.58 


2.510 


5.4 


0548-02 


Tan 


SF 


168 


1.64 


0.790 


5.2 


0004-01 


DkTan 


SF 


168 


1.84 


3.250 


5.3 


0550-01 


DkTan 


SF 


168 


1.95 


3.370 


5.3 


0089-02 


DkTan 


SF 


168 


1.95 


0.709 


5.1 


0579-05 


Tan 


SF 


168 


2.13 


3.630 


5.2 


0508-01 


DkTan 


SF 


168 


2.39 


4.030 


5.2 


0275-02 


White Gr 




168 


0.48 


3.030 


5.3 


0009-04 


Tan-Gr 




168 


0.52 


1.397 


5.4 


0044-01 


Gray 




168 


0.49 


3.130 


5.2 


0009-07 


Gray 




168 


0.56 


2.650 


5.3 


0200-05 


Gray 




168 


0.63 


3.070 


5.3 


0581-01 


Gray 




168 


0.73 


1.530 


5.2 


0600-02 


Tan-Gr 




168 


0.91 


1.135 


5.3 


0120-02 


DkTan-Gr 




168 


1.42 


1.035 


5.2 


0573-03 


DkTan 




168 


1.64 


1.187 


5.2 


0200-03 
0259-04 


White 




168 


1.73 


0.798 


5.3 


White 




168 


1.76 


0.907 


5.1 


0239-02 


Tan 




168 


1.81 


4.270 


5.2 


0291-02 


DkTan 




168 


1.90 


4.090 


5.3 


0039-04 


Gray 




168 


2.01 


2.320 


5.3 


0089-X 


DkTan 




168 


1.99 


4.130 


5.2 


0602-02 


White Gr 




168 


2.23 


3.620 


5.3 


0200-01 


DkTan-Gr 




168 


2.07 


1.030 


5.1 


0200-04 


DkTan 




168 


2.28 


3.190 


5.2 


0146-03 


Tan-Gr 




168 


2.35 


3.310 


5.1 


0548-04X 


Tan 




168 


2.45 


2.780 


5.2 


0045-01 
0002-05 
0039-03 


Tan 




168 


2.46 


0.902 


5.2 


White Gr 




168 


2.63 


4.310 


5.3 


Tan 




168 


3.07 


1,960 


5.3 


0226-03 


DkTan 




168 


3.03 


2.750 


5.2 


0600-04 


Tan 




168 


3.92 


2.670 


5.3 



2 75 Appendix C - Experimental Data 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Table 14 - Brick Water Vapor Transmission Test Data 

Calculated Values are Shaded in Green 



1 7-day MVT 


A 


WVT 


WVT 


cm. 


Sample 


Brick Samples 


Time iirs. 


Wt 
Change 


Test Area 


g/hr*cm2 


g/day*m2 


Thickness 


Sample 


0092-02X 


Imported 


168 


1.01 
0.70 
0.74 
0.84 
1.51 
1.55 
1.69 
1.37 
1.72 
1.90 
1.84 
1.76 
2.30 
2.27 
2.59 
2.49 
3.25 
1.16 
1.27 
1.40 
1.51 
1.85 
1.67 
1.98 
1.76 
2.50 
2.70 
3.05 
2.33 
2.86 
2.97 


6.00 


0.0010 
0.0007 
0.0007 
0.0009 
0.0012 
0.0014 
0.0018 
0.0015 
0.0019 
0.0019 
0.0021 
0.0018 
0.0025 
0.0026 
0.0026 
0.0026 
0.0031 
0.001 1 
0.0014 
0.0015 
0.0016 
0.0016 
0.0017 
0.0017 
0.0020 
0.0024 
0.0027 
0.0030 
0.0031 
0.0032 
0.0033 


240.48 
166.67 
176.19 
208.70 
296.31 
340.66 
437.37 
354.55 
445.13 
452.38 
496.89 
420.45 
597.40 
614.18 
616.67 
617.56 
742.86 
254.95 
328.67 
363.64 
390.79 
390.96 
397.62 
402.93 
475.29 
571.43 
642.86 
726.19 
754.78 
772.35 
802.05 


1.9 


Bare Brick 


0120-01 


Lake 


168 


6.00 


1.9 


Brick w/ Stucco 


0013^1 


Lake 


168 


6.00 


1.9 


Brick \nI Stucco 


0548-01 


Lake 


168 


5.75 


1.9 


Bnck w/ Stucco 


0334-01 


Lake 


168 


7.28 


1.9 


Brick w/ Stucco 


0089-03 


Lake 


168 


6.50 


1.9 


Brick w/ Stucco 


0579-02 


Lake 


168 


5.52 


1.9 


Brick w/ Stucco 


0573-01 


Lake 


168 


5.52 


1.9 


Brick w/ Stucco 


0558-02 


Lake 


168 


5.52 


1.9 


Bnck w/ Stucco 


0593-02 


Lake 


168 


6.00 


1.9 


Bnck w/ Stucco 


0146-01 


Lake 


168 


5.29 


1.8 


Bnck w/ Stucco 


1200-06X 


Lake 


168 


5.98 


1.9 


Bare Brick 


0573-01 X 


Lake 


168 


5.50 


1.9 


Bare Brick 


0548-01 X 


Lake 


168 


5.28 


1.9 


Bare Brick 


01 20-01 X 


Lake 


168 


6.00 


1.9 


Bare Brick 


01 46-01 X 


Lake 


168 


5.76 


1.9 


Bare Brick 


001 3-01 X 


Lake 


168 


6.25 


1.8 


Bare Brick 


0259-02 


River 


168 


6.50 


1.8 


Brick w/ Stucco 


0259-01 


River 


168 


5.52 


1.8 


Brick w/ Stucco 


0579-03 


River 


168 


5.50 


1.9 


Brick vil Stucco 


0251-01 


River 


168 


5.52 


1.8 


Brick w/ Stucco 


0045-02 


River 


168 


6.76 


1.8 


Brick '■nl Stucco 


0107-01 


River 


168 


6.00 


1.9 


Bnck '■nI Stucco 


0089-04 


River 


168 


7.02 


1.8 


Bnck w/ Stucco 


0009-04 


River 


168 


5.29 


1.9 


Bnck w/ Stucco 


1200-05X 


River 


168 


6.25 


2.2 


Bare Brick 


0579-03X 


River 


168 


6.00 


1.8 


Bare Brick 


0259-01 X 


River 


168 


6.00 
4.41 


1.9 


Bare Brick 


0089-04X 


River 


168 


1.8 


Bare Brick 


0009-04X 


River 


168 


5.29 


1.9 


Bare Brick 


0558-03X 


River 


168 


5.29 


1.9 


Bare Brick 



2 76 Appendix C - Experimental Data 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



ARCHITECTURAL CONSERVATION LABORATORY 
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



Project/Site: Modeling Decay Mechanisms of Above Ground Tombs at St. Louis 
Cemetery No. 1, Thesis - J. Peters, August 2002 



Description of Sample 



Sample Identification: 02-03M 



Type/Location; Bedding Mortar 



Surface appearance: Chalky, soft, breaks easy. 



Cross section: None prepared 



Color: 10YR7/3 



Texture; Soft, chalky 



Hardness: Very easy (0) 



Gross weight: 10.51 



Components 



Fines: 



Color: 



Wgt: 1.74 Wgt%: 16.56 



Organic matter: None detected 



Composition; 



Acid Soluble Fraction; 

Reaction 0-3, 3=Most 

Aggressive 

Foam 0-3, 3=Lg Bubbles, long 

lasting, 0=Small bubbles, or 

minimal foam, short lasting. 



Wgt: 2.05 



Wgt. %: 19.51 



Reaction: 2 



Filtrate color: 

Light Yellow 



Foam size: 3 



Composition: 

Not analyzed 
chemically 



Aggregate; 



Color; 



Wgt; 6.72 



Wgt. %: 63.94 



Grain shape; Sub-rounded 



Mineralogy: Mostly quartz, small bits of brick 



Screen size: 



% Retained 



Comment; 

























^T~ 


~V-i ,] 



2.36 mm 



0.00% 



Fully digested 



1.18mm 



2.19% 



Rounded, sub-rounded 



600 ^m 



20.76% 



Rounded, sub-rounded 



300 ^m 



49.56% 



Rounded, sub-rounded 



150 ^m 



17.25% 



Bits of shell, sub-round 



75 [im 



8.19% 



Bits of shell, sub-round 



Pan <75 [om 



2.05% 



Added to fines weight 



Mortar type: Regular category (not the "Shell" category) 



By Weight - Fines ; Acid Soluble ; Aggregate; -3 5 3 : 10 



277 Appendix C - Experimental Data 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Gravimetric Analysis of Aggregate after Acid Digestion 

Reflected Light, Nikon SMZ-U Microscope, Nikon AFX II A Camera, 
Fuji 100 ASA, 35 mm Film, Magnification = 5X 




Mostly rounded 
aggregate, brick 
particles evident. 



02-03. Mortar 



^J '^^ ' ''^' 



I.18mm&600MJn 



Fraction 2 & 3 




02-03, Mortar 



300 urn & 150 ^m 




02-03. Mortar 



75 ^m & <75 ^un 



Mostly rounded 

aggregate, brick 

particles evident, 

black particles. 



Fraction 4 & 5 



Mostly rounded 

aggregate, brick 

particles evident, 

black particles 



Fraction 6 «& 7 



2 78 Appendix C - Experimental Data 



I 
i 

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h; 

h, 
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til 

i 

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o in r- CM 



# # # # 

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iri CD r\i CO 

■^ -- CM CO 



in CO o o> 

CD 1^ CO ^- 

co r-- ^ rr 



^ ^ ^ gs 

in CO ■>- CO 

CM o m o 

od CM r\i CO 



^ # # ^ 

r- CM CM CO 

CO T- CO o 

■^ d o CO 



CD CO h* CO 



# aP gs 






s 


CO ■q- CM 
•TOO) 


S 


s 


in CO CO 


ss 




# # # 
CM in CO 
CM T- in 


1 


S 


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^ 


# # ^ # 
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CD CO CO m 


in 


tt (D r- 



CO T o o 

9 9 66 

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CM CM •.- ■.- 



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in o in CM o >- 


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CM O — O 


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•^ d ■^ 


# # ^ # # # 


1 


CM 
CO 


# # # 
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in 

CO 


as as 

T- in 


ggg#g##as# 

cocdSoSocoSid 


# as as 


d cvi CM CO 


CO 


CM 


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CO 


cvi CO CO 


CO 


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r- ■* ■* CM 


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# # # ^ # # 

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m in in 


# # # # # 
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CD CD h- ■* CO 


2 

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g g g g 

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2S 


CD 


f5 


# # # 


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# as as 

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aP # # 

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d 


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o o o 


d d d 


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§ 


CM 
CD 


g 


s 


O 00 S 


Si 


a> CM 


5 


fi! 


SPSS 


in CM •* 
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m CO CO 


•r^ d d d 


d 


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d 


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# # # 
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CD 

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CD ID ID r-~ CO CO 


as as # 

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CO 


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s§s 


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# # ^ # # ^ 

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as as 


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as as # 

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as # 


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as # # 

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CM — d 


CD 


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CD 


d d CM d 


en in -^ 


00 CO iri 


45-01 
548-02 
13-01 
1200-07E 


9 

CO 

in 
in 


1- 
O 

6 

O 
CD 


H 
O 

6 

O 


1- 

o 
4 


107-03 

89-02 

573-03 


CM 
9 

en 

CO 


So 

CO o 

m o 
m CM 


1 


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CO 

in 


1300-01 
39-01 
200-05 
558-07 


600-CG 

09-CG 

14-CG 


275-02 
602-02 
1 200-01 E 


CM CM CM CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CO CO CO 


CO 


CO CO 


'T 


■^ 


■^ ■^ T ■<J- 


■q- •"3- ■* 


in in in 


Tan 
Tan 
Tan 
ComboT 


E 
o 
O 


E 
o 
O 


E 
o 
O 


Si 

E 
o 
O 


DkTan 
DkTan 
DkTan 


1- 
Q 
E 
E 
o 
O 


1- 1- 
D Q 
E5 
E E 
o o 
O O 


6 


5 


ComboG 
ComboG 
ComboG 
ComboG 


o o o 
SEE 

o o o 


WGray 
WGray 
WGray 



I 

i 
I 

=^ 

I 

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Pi 

S 

E 

3 
C/3 



S 
< 



o 



.a 
H 



cOT-a)ooino5CMa)inco-<-o5'a-ajooT-o)'>*<D'* 
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<ocooicNic)<bcsioioo>uS'^ocNiiri(D'*T-^odT-^o 
— CMT-cMT-<NincM-*^cocNinr-T-cNT-cN cgco 



■^tJ-mOOOtDTtOOOCOOOCMCMCO 

ooo>T-h~T-c\iooiocoir)xi-cooco 



csicoooo>r^t^odo>coc\icNioJoco 

■«-«D<OCDC0T-CNjT-r--C\JCMCOT-(D 



CDCO<D<DC\ir~.lO'*T-t^OCMOJ-'J-00 



CM 
05 


CM 
00 


o 




00 


o 


CM 


C3> 
(O 


CO 
CO 


CO 


CO 

CO 


CO 
(O 


CO 
CD 


CO 


(O 


CM 
CM 



c»r-oor-oocMcoh- 



cMcocoroocDOJomr^ 
t-<dt- CMcocNjinco 



CO O h~ CM 



h- CM CO 



c:> (O o oo 



■* CM T- CO 



CO CD 

a> 00 



CO 



CO 



CO 



0) <u <u 

f J= f 

CO (0 (0 

CM CM 



(1) a> 
f x: 
(0 w 



CM 



CM 



CM 



CO 



cc 



_^__ooi;^^p;jg^r^CMr^cooo 
■'-■^•^■^■^r~-'«-T-r-cMCMT-T-T-T-cMT-cMr^'»-r^T-CM 



cc 



ro 



-4 ™ 



OOC0C0O''O 

CO V V r- o o o 

T-T-CM<3>OCMCMCM 
OOOOt-t-t-t- 



05 

I? 

So 

CM CO 



CD CO O 

■c -c 5 

5 5 § 

CM CM lO in o 



CD CO i_ l_ 



o o o o 



CO CO CM Tf CO 



OOOOOCOOOOOOIOt- 
T^CJ>-4T^?hi-o6cO<J>CDS''? 

inmcovninoo-^r--r-ocj>cM 
CMc\icocO'^'^inmir)<Doo<3> 



a 
1 

s: 



I 

I 






MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Table 17 - Stucco Capillary Absorption 

Example Raw Data, Calculated Values are Shaded in Green 













Tan-Gr 


Amt Abs. 


Mi 




Elapsed 


Cumulative 


Cumulative 


Square Root 








Sample Time (min) 


Time (mIn) 


Time (sec) 


of Time (sec) 


0002-01 


0002-01 


0002-01 


Dry Weight 











0.00 


26 36 


0.00 


0.00 


4/19/02 8:05 


5 


5 


300 


17 32 


27.25 


0.89 


0.08 


4/19/02 8:12 


7 


12 


720 


26.83 


27.44 


1.08 


0.10 


4/19/02 8:19 


7 


19 


1,140 


33.76 


27.47 


1.11 


0.10 


4/19/02 8:25 


6 


25 


1,500 


38.73 


27.73 


1.37 


0.12 


4/19/02 8:32 


7 


32 


1,920 


43.82 


27,74 


1.38 


0.12 


4/19/02 8:38 


6 


38 


2,280 


47.75 


27.77 


1.41 


0.12 


4/19/02 8:48 


10 


48 


2,880 


53.67 


27.76 


1.40 


0,12 


4/19/02 8:58 


10 


58 


3,480 


58.99 


27.82 


1.46 


0.13 


4/19/02 9:08 


10 


68 


4,080 


63.87 


27 80 


1.44 


0.13 


4/19/02 9:23 


15 


83 


4,980 


70.57 


27 82 


1.46 


0.13 


4/19/02 9:38 


15 


98 


5,880 


76.68 


27.81 


1.45 


0.13 


4/19/02 9:53 


15 


113 


6,780 


82.34 


27 82 


1.46 


0.13 


4/19/02 10:11 


18 


131 


7,860 


88.66 


27 85 


1.49 


0.13 


4/19/02 10:41 


30 


161 


9,660 


98.29 


27 85 


1.49 


0.13 


4/19/02 11:11 


30 


191 


1 1 ,460 


107.05 


27 89 


1.53 


0.14 


4/19/02 12:11 


60 


251 


15,060 


122.72 


27.92 


1.56 


0.14 


4/19/02 13:11 


60 


311 


18,660 


136.60 


27.97 


1.61 


0.14 


4/19/02 14:11 


60 


371 


22,260 


149.20 


27.96 


1.60 


0.14 


4/19/02 20:11 


360 


731 


43,860 


209.43 


28.13 


1.77 


0.16 


4/20/02 8:11 


720 


1,451 


87,060 


295.06 


2824 


1.88 


0.17 


4/20/02 20:11 


720 


2,171 


130,260 


360.92 


28.32 


1.96 


0.17 


4/21/02 8:00 


709 


2,880 


172,800 


415.69 


28 36 


2.00 


0.18 


4/21/02 21:00 


720 


3,600 


216,000 


464.76 


28 36 


2.00 


0.18 


4/22/02 8:00 


720 


4,320 


259,200 


509.12 


28 33 


1.97 


0.17 


4/22/02 20:00 


720 


5,040 


302,400 


549.91 


2840 


2.04 


0.18 


4/23/02 20:00 


1,440 


6,480 


388,800 


623.54 


2851 


2.15 


0.19 


4/24/02 20:00 


1,440 


7,920 


475,200 


689 35 


28.54 


2.18 


0.19 


4/25/02 20:00 


1,440 


9,360 


561,600 


749.40 


2852 


2.16 


0.19 


4/27/02 8:00 


2,160 


11,520 


691,200 


831.38 


2852 


2.16 


0.19 


% Moisture Gained in Capillary Absorption 


8.19% CpAbsCoeff 


0.0028 


Fully Saturated 


28.52 


Imbibation Capacity % 










8.19% 






Mp, Vp 










2.16 






Diff between Cap Abs and Total Imm. 






0.00% 






Water Level 










170 00 






With Sample 










182.00 






Water Displaced (ml) 










12.00 






Vp/Va*100=% Porosity 










18.00% 







28 J Appendix C - Experimental Data 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Table 18 - Brick Capillary Absorption 
Example Row Data, Calculated Values are Shaded in Green 



Color 


R-O 


R-O 


R-T 


R-T 


R-O 


T 


Type 


River 


River 


Lake 


Lake 


River 


Lake 


Sample 


0009-04 


0009-04X 


0013-01X 


0013-01 


0045-02 


0089-03 


Depth (cm) 


1.90 


2.10 


1.80 


1.70 


1.80 


1.90 


Width(cm) 


3.30 


2.80 


3.50 


3.70 


3.50 


3.40 


Height(cm) 


3.60 


3.60 


3.60 


3.60 


3.60 


3.60 


Surface Area (cm^) 6.27 5.88 6.30 6.29 6.30 6.46 
Volume (cm^) 22.57 21.17 22.68 22.64 22.68 23.26 
Density (g/cm^' 1.68 1.66 1.69 2.00 1.56 1.67 


4/19/02 11:37 


37.87 


35.22 


38.39 


45.26 


35.28 


38.80 


4/19/0211:42 


41.44 


41,75 


44.18 


47.70 


40.19 


43.64 


4/19/02 11:47 


41.64 


41.82 


44.25 


47.79 


40.67 


44.34 


4/19/02 11:52 


41.74 


41.84 


44.25 


47.84 


40.84 


44.42 


4/19/0211:57 


41.83 


41.85 


44.28 


47.88 


40.93 


44.45 


4/19/0212:02 


41.91 


41.87 


44.29 


47.91 


40.99 


44.46 


4/19/0212:07 


41.99 


41.87 


44.28 


47.92 


41.01 


44.47 


4/19/0212:17 


42.09 


41.87 


44.27 


47.97 


41.07 


44.49 


4/19/0212:27 


42.21 


41.90 


44.31 


48.02 


41.10 


44.51 


4/19/0212:37 


42.29 


41.89 


44.28 


48.04 


41.09 


44.51 


4/19/0212:52 


42.43 


41.92 


44.32 


48.09 


41.13 


44.53 


4/19/0213:07 


42.53 


41.93 


44.32 


48.12 


41.14 


44.53 


4/19/02 13:22 


42.61 


41.91 


44.30 


48.14 


41.14 


44.54 


4/19/0213:37 


42.71 


41.94 


44.32 


48.17 


41.16 


44.56 


4/19/0214:07 


42.84 


41.95 


44.35 


48.24 


41.19 


44.59 


4/19/0214:37 


42.96 


41.97 


44.32 


48.27 


41.19 


44.61 


4/19/02 15:37 


43.05 


41.99 


44.32 


48.35 


41.22 


44.61 


4/19/0216:37 


43.07 


42.04 


44.32 


48.41 


41.26 


44.66 


4/19/0217:37 


43.09 


42.08 


44.35 


48.47 


41.29 


44.70 


4/19/02 22:37 


43.19 


42.28 


44.43 


48.64 


41.40 


44.85 


4/20/0211:37 


43.36 


42.60 


44.59 


48.98 


41.66 


45.25 


4/20/02 23:05 


43.46 


42.78 


44.78 


49.26 


41.87 


45.42 


4/21/0211:37 


43.57 


42.96 


44.91 


49.44 


42.00 


45.56 


4/21/02 23:05 


43.66 


43.11 


45.05 


49.58 


42.13 


45.66 


4/22/0211:00 


43.66 


43.16 


45.09 


49.66 


42.23 


45.73 


4/22/02 23:00 


43.77 


43.26 


45.17 


49.73 


42.32 


45.81 


4/23/02 23:00 


43.87 


43.37 


45.26 


49.77 


42.40 


45.91 


4/24/02 22:30 


43.96 


43.45 


45.35 


49.84 


42.46 


45.97 


4/25/02 20:30 


44.05 


43.56 


45.47 


49.91 


42.59 


46.11 


4/27/02 8:30 


44.13 


43.61 


45.54 


49.92 


42.65 


46.17 


% Moisture Gained in Cap. Abs. 16.53% 23.82% 18.62% 10.30% 20.89% 18.99% 


Fully Saturated i 44.34i 43.85 45.78: 50.16! 42.96 46.33 


% Moisture Gained in Total Imm. 17.08% 24.50% 19.25% 10.83% 21.77% 19.41% 

Mp, Vp 6.47 8.63 7.39 4.90 7.68 7.53 

DIffbetw. CapAbsandTotallmm. 0.55% 0.68% 0.63% 0.53% 0.88% 0.41% 
















Water Level 


170.00 


170.00 


170.00 


170.00 


170.00 


170.00 


With Sample 


196.00 


198.00 


199.00 


200.00 


191 00 


^190 00 


Va Water Displaced (ml) 26.00 28.00 29.00 30.00 21.00 20.00 
VpA/a* 100=% Porosity 24.88% 30.82% 25.48% 16.33% 36.57% 37.65% 



282 Appendix C - Experimental Data 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Table 19 - Stucco Drying Curve and Drying Rate Data 
Example Raw Data - Calculated Values are Shaded in Green 

















0009-07, 


Gray Layer 














Change 






Relative 


Residual 




Relative 


Relative 


Diff. in 


Diff in 


Relative 




Cum. 


n Time 


Wtof 


Water 


Moisture 


Water 


Moisture 


Moisture 


Moisture 


Moisture 


Moisture 


Moisture 




Time 


Hours 


Sample 


Content 


Content 


Content 


Content 


Content 


Lost 


Content 


Content 


Content 


Drying Curve 


(hrs) 


M 


(Wt) 


(Uyg) 


(Y) 


(Q%) 


(*) 


Diff. (AY) 


(AY/At) 


4(«t>) 


(Af/At) 


(Y%) 


4/30/02 9 00 


00 


000 


31 37 


2 23 


1 00 


7 65% 


0038 


000 


00 


000 


0,00 


100 00% 


4/30/02 9 07 


0.12 


012 


31 28 


2.14 


096 


7 34% 


037 


040 


346 


002 


0,0132 


95 96% 


4/30/02 9 13 


22 


010 


31 25 


211 


095 


724% 


036 


0013 


135 


0001 


0051 


94 62% 


4/30/02 9 20 


033 


012 


31 25 


211 


095 


7 24% 


036 


0,000 


0000 


000 


0000 


94 62% 


4/30/02 9 29 


048 


015 


31 25 


211 


095 


724% 


036 


0000 


000 


0000 


0000 


94 62% 


4/30/02 9 39 


065 


017 


31 22 


208 


093 


7 14% 


036 


0013 


0081 


001 


0031 


93 27% 


4/30/02 9 49 


82 


017 


31 18 


204 


0.91 


7 00% 


035 


0018 


0.108 


0001 


0041 


91 48% 


4/30/02 9 59 


0.98 


017 


31 12 


198 


089 


6 79% 


034 


0027 


0.161 


0,001 


0062 


88 79% 


4/30/02 10 15 


1 25 


027 


31 05 


191 


086 


6.55% 


033 


031 


0118 


0001 


0045 


85 65% 


4/30/02 10 30 


1,50 


025 


30 99 


185 


0.83 


635% 


032 


027 


108 


0001 


0041 


82 96% 


4/30/02 10 45 


1 75 


025 


30 95 


181 


081 


6 21% 


031 


0018 


0072 


0,001 


0027 


81 17% 


4/30/02 1 1 00 


2 00 


025 


30 89 


175 


0.78 


6,01% 


030 


027 


0108 


0001 


00041 


78 48% 


4/30/02 1 1 30 


2 50 


0,50 


30 79 


165 


0.74 


5.66% 


028 


045 


0090 


0,002 


0034 


73 99% 


4/30/02 12 00 


300 


0.50 


30 73 


159 


0.71 


5.46% 


027 


027 


054 


001 


00021 


71 30% 


4/30/02 13 00 


400 


1 00 


30 58 


1.44 


0.65 


4.94% 


025 


067 


0067 


003 


00026 


64 57% 


4/30/02 14 00 


5,00 


1.00 


30 52 


1 38 


0.62 


4,74% 


024 


027 


027 


0,001 


0010 


61 88% 


4/30/02 15 00 


6,00 


1 00 


30 46 


1.32 


059 


453% 


023 


027 


0027 


0001 


00010 


59 19% 


4/30/02 16 00 


7,00 


1 00 


30 43 


1 29 


058 


443% 


022 


0013 


0.013 


0001 


0005 


57 85% 


4/30/02 17 00 


8 00 


1 00 


30 38 


1 24 


056 


4,26% 


0021 


0022 


0022 


001 


0009 


55 61% 


4/30/02 18 00 


9,00 


1 00 


30 36 


1 22 


0.55 


4 19% 


021 


009 


0009 


000 


00003 


54 71% 


4/30/02 20 00 


11,00 


200 


30 32 


1 18 


0.53 


4,05% 


0020 


0018 


0009 


001 


0003 


52 91% 


4/30/02 23 00 


14 00 


3 00 


30 28 


1 14 


0.51 


3 91% 


0019 


0018 


006 


0001 


0002 


51 12% 


5/1/02 8 00 


23 00 


9 00 


30 20 


1 06 


0.48 


3 64% 


0018 


036 


0004 


001 


0002 


47 53% 


5/1/02 23 00 


38 00 


15 00 


30 06 


92 


041 


3 16% 


0016 


0063 


004 


002 


0002 


41 26% 


5/2/02 8 00 


47 00 


9 00 


30 01 
29 14 


87 


39 


299% 


0015 


0022 


0,002 


0001 


00001 


39 01% 


Full Dry Weight 


Wa 












Critical moisture content 'V^ 


034 


g/cm^ 


Total Water Content Recalculat 


765% 










Cntical moisture content Yj 


88 79% % 



09-07 Gray Layer Drying Rate 
Amount of Moisture Lost per Unit Time vs. Moisture Content 



400 
350 



? 0150 



m 



wmmm 



Critical moisture content 'Vc 




^ 



Moisture Content {*¥ g/cm^) 



283 Appendix C ~ Experimental Data 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Table 20 - Brick Drying Curve and Drying Rate Data 

Example Raw Data - Calculated Values are Shaded in Green 



0548^1, with Stucco, Lake Brick 







Change 






Relative 


Residual 




Relative 


Relative 


Diff. in 


Diff in 


Relative 




Cum. 


in Time 


Wtof 


Water 


Moisture 


Water 


Moisture 


Moisture 


Moisture 


Moisture 


Moisture 


Moisture 




Time 


Hours 


Sample 


Content 


Content 


Content 


Content 


Content 


Lost 


Content 


Content 


Content 


Drying Curve (hrs) 


At 


(Wt) 


<UTg) 


(Y) 


(Q%) 


(f) 


DilT. (AY) 


(AY/At) 


^{V) 


(AW.Xt) 


(Y%) 


5/2/02 9 30 


00 


000 


38 32 


5 37 


100 


16 30% 


0260 


000 


000 


000 


000 


100 00% 


5/2/02 9 38 


013 


013 


38 26 


5.31 


0.99 


16 12% 


257 


0.011 


084 


003 


022 


98 88% 


5/2/02 9 43 


022 


08 


38 24 


529 


0.99 


16 05% 


256 


004 


045 


0001 


012 


98 51% 


5/2/02 9 49 


032 


010 


38 22 


527 


98 


15 99% 


255 


0004 


037 


0001 


0010 


98 14% 


5/2/02 9 55 


042 


010 


38 19 


524 


98 


15 90% 


253 


006 


056 


0.001 


0015 


97 58% 


5/2/02 10 03 


55 


013 


38 17 


522 


0.97 


15 84% 


253 


004 


028 


001 


0007 


97.21% 


5/2/02 10 10 


067 


12 


38 13 


518 


096 


15 72% 


251 


007 


064 


0002 


0017 


96 46% 


5/2/02 10 20 


083 


017 


38 07 


512 


095 


15 54% 


248 


0011 


067 


003 


0017 


95 34% 


5/2/02 10 30 


1 00 


017 


38.02 


507 


094 


15 39% 


0245 


009 


056 


002 


015 


9441% 


5/2/02 10 45 


1 25 


25 


37 96 


501 


093 


15 20% 


242 


0011 


045 


003 


0012 


93 30% 


5/2/02 11 06 


1 60 


35 


37 88 


493 


092 


14 96% 


0238 


015 


043 


004 


0011 


91 81% 


5/2/02 1 1 26 


1.93 


33 


37 79 


484 


0.90 


1469% 


0234 


0.017 


050 


004 


013 


90 13% 


5/2/02 11 46 


2.27 


33 


37 71 


476 


0.89 


14 45% 


230 


0015 


0045 


0004 


0012 


88 64% 


5/2/02 12 16 


2.77 


50 


37 60 


465 


087 


14 11% 


225 


0020 


041 


005 


011 


86 59% 


5/2/02 12 46 


3.27 


50 


37 50 


455 


085 


1381% 


220 


019 


0037 


0005 


0010 


8473% 


5/2/02 13 16 


3.77 


50 


37 38 


443 


0.82 


13 44% 


0214 


0022 


0045 


006 


0012 


8250% 


5/2/02 13 45 


4.25 


048 


37 26 


431 


080 


1308% 


208 


0022 


0046 


0.006 


0.012 


80 26% 


5/2/02 14 15 


4.75 


50 


37.12 


417 


078 


12 66% 


0202 


0026 


0052 


007 


0014 


77 65% 


5/2/02 14 50 


533 


58 


37 00 


405 


0.75 


12 29% 


196 


022 


038 


006 


010 


7542% 


5/2/02 15 30 


6 00 


67 


36 86 


3.91 


73 


11 87% 


0189 


026 


0039 


0.007 


010 


72 81% 


5/2/02 16 30 


700 


1 00 


36 63 


3 68 


69 


11.17% 


178 


0043 


043 


011 


0011 


68 53% 


5/2/02 17 30 


8.00 


1 00 


36 42 


3 47 


65 


10 53% 


168 


039 


039 


0010 


010 


64 62% 


5/2/02 18 30 


9 00 


1 00 


36 24 


3 29 


061 


998% 


159 


0034 


0034 


009 


009 


61 27% 


5/2/02 21 30 


12.00 


300 


35 64 


269 


050 


8 16% 


130 


112 


0037 


0029 


010 


50 09% 


5/3/02 30 


15.00 


300 


35 15 


220 


041 


6 68% 


106 


0091 


0030 


024 


008 


4097% 


5/3/02 8 00 


22.50 


750 


34 20 


1 25 


023 


3 79% 


060 


0177 


024 


0046 


0006 


23 28% 


5/3/02 21 00 


35 50 


1300 


33 46 


051 


009 


1 55% 


025 


138 


0011 


036 


003 


9 50% 


5/4/02 8 00 


46.50 


1100 


33 30 


035 


07 


1 06% 


0017 


030 


003 


0008 


0001 


6 52% 


5/4/02 22 00 


60 50 


14 00 


33 23 


028 


005 


085% 


014 


0.013 


001 


0003 


000 


5 21% 


5/5/02 8 00 


7050 


1000 


33 23 


28 


005 


85% 


0.014 


0000 


0.000 


0000 


000 


5 21% 
















Crtical moisture content ^^ 


202 g/cm" 


Full Dry Weight Wd 




32 95 










Critical moisture content Y^ 


77 65% % 



548-01 River Brick with Stucco, Drying Rate 
Amount of Moisture Lost per Unit Time vs. Moisture Content 



0060 
0050 
0040 
0030 

020 



Critical moisture content *fc 



0000 ^" 
03O0 



0200 0150 0100 

Moisture Content (f g/cm^) 



284 Appendix C - Experimental Data 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



XRD Scans 

Z20B96.RAW 




5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30. 35. 40. 45. 50. 55. 



60. 



Z20895.RAW 




285 Appendix C - Experimental Data 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 
XRD Scans 

Z20894 . RAM 



HSPV HHHL JP 



I" I '•' |^'^■''^''P'^I ^^ I T^ ^' ''' '' |'^ ^^' ^'T ''''''''| ^' ^' T '' ' '' ' ' M' ' ' ' ' ' '''^'' ^ 

5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30. 35. 40. 45. 50. 55. 60 



220693. RAM 



HSPV 1200-08 JP 



ii' lv i' r 



1 ^ | if>| i M f ^ |i| '|l |i| > |i M i p|i | i | i| i|i|>f f fl|i 



"nii|'ii| |ii'iM'ii|iiiiifi|i|"i*ii|i| 

5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30. 35. 40. 45. 50. ffi. 60. 



286 Appendix C - Experimental Data 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



XRD Scans 



Si*», 



Z20891.RAN 



HSPV 600-02 TAN ^P 




?fib 



5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30. 35. 40. 45. 50. 55. 60. 



Z20B92.RAW 




> |7;^i!,.',.i.,.| I ■'.|'. f ,. f ,: [i/l)t , . ,.| r. M |.i w , T 

5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30. 35. 40. 45. 50. 55. 60. 



28 7 Appendix C ~ Experimental Data 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 

XRD Scans 

Z20889.RAH 




5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30. 35. 40. 45. 50. 55. 60. 



Z20B90.RAN 




288 Appendix C - Experimental Data 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



TGA-DTA Scans 



S.mpU 1 li« pulty/3 s.nd(S24) TPA-nTA 

Sue 13 5785 mg ' "J" LJ I f\ 

Method ZotolOOO 
Conment 20o/«ln to lOOOoC in *r 



File DATA\SDT\DATAV042602 01 

Operator ARM 

Run Date 26-Apr-02 n 04 



110 




400 600 800 1000 

Temperjture CC) Uoiversal "Vl . lOB M Inatrusisnti 



Sample 1RHH/3S23 fines 
Size: 10 4214 ng 
Method 2oto1000 

Cotnent 20o/r«in to lOOOoC in Ar 
100 



TPA-DTA '■''• D:\TA\S0T\DATAV042602 

^^f^ U I A Operator; ARM 

Run Date: 26-Apr-02 13:39 




289 Appendix C - Experimental Data 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



TGA-DTA Scans 



Sample la portland/1 line fine 
Size 12 4S77 ng 

Method 2oto100a 
Comment 20o/iiiin to lOOOoC in A 
105 



TPA-nTA "''• \TA\SOT\0A7A\a425O2 02 

I UM U I A On.r.fn.- ABU 



Operator: ARM 

Run Date 23-Apr-02 13 39 







749,27*C 


^\/ 237 31 "C \ 
>v„,97 66X \ 


r\ 


/ ^ 05- 
f E 

/ - 


/ \ 


^^ 


v574 gg'C / 


c 00- 

• 


1 373 69°C 

1 94.23*C / 
1 /*-fc '^-^ ■'°''^ / 


94 lOX 

1 




% -0 05-- 

i. 

1 


1/ ^"^ y 


V>-, ^ 


800.69°c\ 

80 68X *^ — 1 



400 600 

Tenpera.ture ("C) 



800 1000 

Universal ¥1 108 TA InstruKfnts 



Sample IwPortland/l lime fines 
Size 11 8106 mg 

Method 2oto1000 
Coiinert 20o/irin to lOOOoC in A 
100 



TPA-nTA '''le \TA\SDT\OATA\04290a2 02 

! U« U I A Operator ARM 



Run Date 29-Apr-02 15 28 




^ -O 05 - - 1 



290 Appendix C - Experimental Data 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



TGA-DTA Scans 



Sample 09-08 ong fines 

Sue 12 3607 mg 

Method. ZstolOOO 

Couipent 20o/min to lOOOoC ir «r 



TPA-nTA '^'l' \TA\SDT\D*T*\042<02 02 

I L>A U \ f\ Operator ARM 



Run Date 24-Apr-02 16 06 



110 




a05 16*C 
769 39 'C 7« AbX 



Sample 
Size 


600-04 Orig Stucco 
11 4780 ng 




TGA- 


-DTA 


Method 


JotolOOO 








Conment 


20o/»iin to lOOOoC 


in Ar 







File \TA\SDT\DATA\042402 01 

Operator ARM 

Run Date 24-Apr-02 09 36 





^\ 138.94*C 

>v^^ 71X 








95 


226 la'C^"'^"--^-.,^^ 

96 62X ^ 


469 82°C 
93 6SX 


764 9 


2"C 


1 1- 


BO- 
SS- 




-\ 






t 0- 

o 


80- 


/ 83 05 "C 
/ /KJ^° ^*''- 364 74 'C 




y \\ 


f ^ 


1-01. 








75- 














\805 I5*C 
Wo 3111 




70- 






• W 





400 600 

Tenperature (*C) 



29 J Appendix C - Experimental Data 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOV IS CEMETERY NO. 1 



TGA-DTA Scans 



Sampla 09-07 CMi»nt fines TPA— HTA 

Size: 14 2557 mg ' ^ '^ ^ ' " 
Method 2oto1000 

Cociment 20o/«in to lOOOoC in Ar 



File \T*\S0T\0ATA\0425O2 03 

Operator ARN 

Hun Date 25-Apr-02 16 10 



99- 


\v. ^^-^--^ 290 97''C 
^?<Cr ^\^94 SIX 
/ '■*^--04^ 438 52*C 
/ 378 IS'C^N^Cl^ 


749 27 


•c 


Ok 





05- 


- 3 


90- 


/ 572.66"C^'\^\. 
/ 664 32*C\ 

/ 89 lOX 

I/' *~-~,,_^ 362.51*C ^/ 


\ 

805 
79 C 


1 — -^_ 


• 





00- 


2 


85- 


r 


o 

L 
3 

a 

1 


05- 


■ 1 
















75 


)0X 











400 600 

Temperature (*C) 



800 1000 

rsal VI 108 TA Instruments 



600-01 Cement fines 
14 1564 ng 
2ato1000 
20o/inin to lOOOoC in Ar 



TPA-nTA rwt. Q \TA\SDT\DATA\042502 01 

I UA U I A Oparator: ARH 



Opera 

Run Date: 2S-Apr-02 09 20 









760 45 'C 




100 


"\ /^"^ 




/ ^ 05- 


- 3 
















\ / 199 31 "C 






•5, 






^■<94 78X 






^ 




9b- 


/^~^ 


574 B9"C^ ~C^ 




c 00- 


• 2 


90- 


.jmib'c 






o 

^ -0 05 


- 1 


85- 


/ ^---_ 






a 






/ 


^ 




Ur»v.~„^-V=A^- 


•0 


80- 


' 












800 69°C 










77 88X 




75- 




1 . J— 




. - 



400 600 

Terrperature ('C) 



800 1 000 

-sal VI lOa TA Instruments 



292 Appendix C Experimental Data 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



Appendix D 
Summary Results 



293 Appendix D - Summary Results 



I 

i 
i 

I 

I 

Si 
I 







0) 


^ 








































re 


3 




^ 




^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


o? 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 






u 


c 


CO 




T— 


CVJ 


^ 


T— 


O 
CD 


^ 


CO 


00 


CD 


CM 


r- 


CO 


CO 


00 


CM 






s 


.2 


0) 


Tj- 




in 




in 


C3) 


m 


a> 


CO 


00 


h- 


m 


o 


a> 


in 


CM 






w 


o 


c 


iri 




h-^ 


CNi 


ob 


CM 


h^ 


d 


■^ 


CO 


CO 


^ 


CM 


d 


•^ 


d 


iri 






o 


S 


o 
o 


Ti- 




in 


CO 


•* 


CD 


in 


CO 


CO 


m 


in 


00 


00 


CO 


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MODELING OF TOMB DECA Y AT ST. LOUIS CEMETER Y NO. 1 



INDEX 



aboveground burial 10 

absorption 62 

acid soluble analysis 127 

additions 87 

adhesion 77, 85 

adhesive bond 68, 71 

adsorption 63 

advanced instrumental analysis 151 

aggregate shape 132 

alite 42,152 

All Saints' Day 2, 18 

alterations 26 

aluminate 42,61 

Archdiocese ... 1, 3, 12, 21, 22, 23, 24, 205 

arched 32 

Aspdin, Joseph 45 

bays 28 

BeckeLine 147 

belite 42,152 

bending point 66 

binder 39,40 

biochemical deterioration 55 

bio-growth process 55 

biological growth 79, 196 

biological organisms 73 

biophysical deterioration 55 

bio-receptivity requirements 54 

bi-refringence 147 

bousillage 33 

brick 33, 61, 94, 173, 176 

brick characterization 88. 99 

brick deterioration 38 

brick quality 35 

brickwork 29 

brickyards, early 34 

briquette entre poteaux 35 

burial practices 8, 28 

Cabildo 9, 10, 22, 35, 212, 221 

calcimeter 138 

capillary absorption 3,93, 119 



capillary absorption coefficient 65, 181 

capillary absorption rate calculation... 121 

capillary movement 62, 109 

carbonates 61 

cause-and-effect diagram 26 

caveau 28 

cement 39, 42, 143 

cement encased 83, 84, 202 

cement patch 81 

cement roof. 87, 202 

cement stucco 71 

cemetery management 74 

chalk lime 43 

chemical deterioration 70, 72 

chemical incompatibility 60 

chemosynthetic 54 

clay 73, 178 

climate 43 

closure tablet 29 

coefficient of thermal expansion 38 

Collaborative studio 1, 12 

complex composite system 183 

composite systems 32 

compressive strength 37 

condensation 59, 63 

condition maps 75 

conservation 21, 58, 74 

constant capillary absorption 120 

cornice deterioration 30, 86 

corrosion 60, 88 

cracking 61, 73, 81, 192 

Creole 7 

critical moisture content 67, 126, 176 

critical water content 64, 66 

crystaUine porous materials 61 

cultural landscape 58 

cyanobacteria 55 

cycUng 71 

decay mechanisms 4,26 

deferred repairs 194 



302 



Index 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



delamination 71, 80, 96 

DePauger, Adrian 8 

dePouilly, Jacques Nicolas Bussiere 17 

deterioration 28, 60, 69, 76, 174 

differential movement 73 

differential thermal expansion 74 

diffusion 63 

disaggregation 96 

displacement 72 

dissolution 60, 172 

drying levels 67 

drying process 186 

drying rate 3,67,93, 119, 123 

earth colored stuccos 15 

efflorescence 79 

Elysian field 13 

eminently hydraulic lime 41 

environment 51 

environmental probes 94 

ettringite 70, 84, 151, 152, 163 

evaporative drying process 66 

falling damp 192, 194 

feebly hydraulic lime 41 

ferrite 42 

field assessment 91 

fire (great historical fires) 9,35 

first visible date 11,205 

flat roof issues 37, 87 

Flint, Timothy 15 

flush brick joints 85 

gehlenite 42 

Geographical Information System 

GIS 3,93 

geology 51 

gravimetric analysis 93,95, 127 

gravity 62,81,86, 182 

Greenwood Cemetery 17 

groundcover 54 

guidelines 23 

Gwilt, Joseph 43 

gypsum 70 

hand made bricks 37 



Heam, Lafcadio 19 

herbicides 196 

high relative humidity 63 

high vapor pressure 63 

hydration products 143 

hydraulic contact 69 

hydraulic lime ... 39, 40, 44, 143, 169, 209 

hydrophilic 61 

hygric expansion 182, 185 

hygroscopic 4, 65, 71 

imbibition capacity 102, 176, 184, 186 

imported bricks 37 

incompatibilities 46 

incompatible patches & repairs 200 

incompatible surface finishes 1 98 

interface types 69 

key 86 

King, Grace 19,20 

Knickpoint 66 

lake bricks 36 

Lake Pontchartrain 6 

latex paints 77 

Latrobe, Benjamin vii, 13, 14, 15, 37, 210, 
211,212 

lime 39, 40 

lime wash 30, 48, 49 

load bearing brick 89 

local environment 174 

maintenance 4, 19,76, 190, 194,208 

map cracking 83 

Masonry Damage Diagnostic System. 206 

masonry deterioration 4 

material integrity 78 

materials deterioration 76 

materials of construction 26 

mechanical properties 33 

mechanical stress 28, 61 

meniscus 62 

metalwork 88 

micro-cracks 70, 182, 192 

mineralogical characterization 1 46 

Mississippi River 5, 6, 52, 132 



304 



Index 



MODELING OF TOMB DECAY AT ST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. I 



models for decay 33, 206 

moderately hydraulic lime 41 

Mohs hardness 98 

Moisture Absorption by Total Immersion 

101 

moisture driven decay mechanisms 59 

moisture sources 69 

moisture transport 60 

moisture vapor transmission 3,94 

mortar 39,61, 172 

mortar analysis 46, 91, 128 

mortar joint deterioration 89, 177 

moss 55 

Moxon, Joseph 43 

Mt. Auburn Cemetery 17 

Mugnier, George Francois 18 

Munsell 97, 128 

NTVT 110 

National Register 2 

natural cements 41, 44 

natural contact interface 69 

Necropolis cemetery 13 

neglected surface finish 192 

New Orleans History 5 

open porosity 102 

optical microscopy 142 

organic finishes 198 

oxides 61 

parapet tomb 12 

Particle Atlas 148 

patch boundaries 186 

patina 56 

pediment tomb 12 

penetration depth 65 

percent porosity 3 

PereLachaise 17 

Perpetual Care 3, 22, 23 

phases 147 

photosynthetic 54 

physical characterization 96 

physical damage process 70 

physical incompatibility 60 



physical movement 72 

plasters 39 

platform tomb 11, 12 

polar surface 61, 62 

polarized light microscopy 146 

pollutants 72 

porosity 38, 60, 177, 205 

porosity by image analysis 205 

Portland cement... 39, 42, 45, 46, 47, 135, 

136, 160, 167, 168 

pozzolans 41, 143,165 

presence of salts 139, 173 

preservation 22, 58 

protonemas 55 

rainwater 71 

recommendations 204 

re-crystallized calcite 157 

refi'active index 147 

renders 39 

restoration 20, 21, 24, 46, 94 

RILEM induction tubes 108 

rising damp 59,79, 111, 186 

river brick 36, 37 

roof closure system 31 

rural cemetery 13 

sacrificial 80, 208 

salt decay 70,85 

salt presence 139, 173 

sampling 93 

Samuel Wilson, Jr 21, 22, 34 

Save A merica 's Treasures 2, 24, 205 

Save Our Cemeteries, Inc 22 

Scanning Electron Microscopy 

SEM, EDS 3, 184,91, 151 

scenarios 1 

Secretary of the Interior Standards for 

Historic Preservation 23 

settlement 87 

silicates 61 

simple composite system 183 

sinking 52, 87 

site conditions 174 



305 



Index 



MODELING OF TOMB DECA YATST. LOUIS CEMETERY NO. 1 



site description 2 

Society for the Preservation of Ancient 

Tombs 20 

society tombs 18 

soil composition 72 

soil type 54 

sources of moisture 59 

spoiling 84 

St. Lx)uis Cemetery No. 1 2, 10 

St. Louis Cemetery No. 2 17 

St. Louis Church 8 

St. Peter Cemetery 8, 10 

step tombs 11, 12, 13 

stone lime 29, 43 

structual system 27 

structural cracks 83 

structural failures 4 

stucco 30, 31, 39, 61, 95, 172 

stucco covered brick 43 

stucco deterioration 95 

stucco groups 97 

subsidence 53 

surface finish 48, 77 

surface preparation 78 

Survey 1, 3, 12, 24, 75, 76, 78, 79, 94, 108 

tabby 33 

tablet systems 88 

telescoping 81, 179 

tensile strength 37 

test design 91 

testing and analysis 91 

TGA/DTA 3,91,165 

thermal expansion 182 

thermal expansion coeflficients 74 

thickness correlation to WVT 1 12 

thin-section polarized 110 

Thornton, Cyril 16 

tiers 28 

tomb configuration 28 



tomb construction 27 

tomb settlement 73 

tomb types 11 

tombscape conservation 24, 205 

tombscapes 18 

topography 51, 54 

total immersion test, stucco 101 

total immersion, brick 106 

total immersion, mortar 104 

tourism 56, 57 

trabeated 32 

traffic vibration 56 

travel accounts 13, 17 

Twain, Mark 17 

UV degradation 50 

vapor diffusion 63 

vertical closure system 31 

vibration 56 

wall vault 12 

water absorption by total immersion 92 

water absorption coefficient 102 

water penetration coefficient 65 

water reactive clays 178 

water vapor transmission 95, 111 

waterproof finishes 49 

weather 53 

weathering 208 

well-maintained tomb 190 

wetting levels 64 

Wharton, Thomas K 44 

WPA 20, 21, 35, 205 

WVT 180 

WVT calculation 117 

WVT, brick 114 

WVT, stucco Ill 

X-Ray Diffraction 

XRD 3,91, 159 

yellow fever 6 



306 



Index 



Anne & Jerome Fisher 
FINE ARTS LIBRARY 

Umversity of Pennsylvania ^ ^ 




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